Let's lay back on the sofa, put our feet up, and receive a therapeutic foot
massage, accompanied by the soothing sounds of the rainforest. Feel the energy
as your body's impurities are cleansed, your wellness heals itself, and the
cancerous tumor in your brain melts away — all because of this foot massage.
We call it Reflexology.
Reflexology is the art of rubbing the foot, with the belief that certain areas
on the bottom of the foot are spiritually connected to parts of the body. Rubbing
the part of the foot that correlates to the brain, for example, is supposed
to cure anything that's wrong with your brain, like brain cancer. Rubbing the
part of the foot that corresponds with your elbow is alleged to magically reconnect
a torn elbow ligament. Developed in 1913 by a man named William Fitzgerald
as "zone therapy", reflexology is based on the New Age definition
of the word
"energy". Fitzgerald believed that a mystical force field, not understood
by science, that he called "bioelectric energy", ran through the
body in ten vertical bands corresponding to your ten digits. Modern practitioners
call Fitzgerald's mystical energy field "life force", and believe
that adepts can manipulate this force field to promote any type of wellness
in any part of the body, all through actions that correspond to a conventional
foot massage. For more great information on New Age energy, I refer you to Skeptoid
episode #1, available on iTunes or on the Skeptoid.com web site.
Now, nobody disputes that foot massages do have benefits. They feel great,
and absolutely promote relaxation and stress reduction. Unfortunately, these
benefits can mislead people to conclude that the massage is working for whatever
other malady is claimed to be treated. Another problem with reflexology is
that, when used to diagnose a medical problem that does not in fact exist,
the practitioner can claim that it is a future problem that's being diagnosed
and treated. Time travel combined with medical treatment! If reflexology were
to be tested and compared to the results of a real medical diagnosis, this
time travel aspect allows its supporters to claim even a clean miss as a direct
Listener Scott Breitbach wrote in with the following letter:
Hello Dr. Dunning,
I live in a small town in Iowa (pop. 4,000ish). About two years ago a fitness
center was built (the Chickasaw Wellness Complex, CWC), which I think is
pretty good for a town of our size. I've got a membership and have thus far
been satisfied. However a (cover) story this week in our local paper was
about the new 'Reflexologist' now employed at the CWC. I have attached the
My issue is this: I would like to submit a letter to the editor refuting
the article and exposing reflexology for what it is, pseudoscience. The
reason I am emailing you then is that I need some help. I need some information
and resources as well as talking points for my letter. Please help!
p.s. Thanks for the podcast, I enjoy listening.
And thank you, Scott, for helping to fight the good fight and alerting the
paper's readers to this sham. And here is the article that the New Hampton
Tribune, in New Hampton, Iowa published:
What is Reflexology?
As part of the Lighten up Iowa Kick-off Celebration held at the Chickasaw
Wellness Complex on Thursday, January 4, Chantal Papousek, a Lay Minister
of Reflexology, introduced area residents to Reflexology.
According to information supplied by Chantal, Reflexology, or zone therapy,
is the practice of stimulating points on the feet and hands, in the belief
it will have a beneficial effect on some other parts of the body, or will
improve a person’s general health — helping a body heal from acute
and chronic conditions, help reduce pain, stress and the effects of stress
on the body such as high blood pressure.
The most common form is foot reflexology. Practitioners believe the
foot to be divided into a number of reflex zones corresponding to all parts
of the body, and that applying pressure to tight areas of a person’s foot
will stimulate the corresponding body part, thus causing it to begin healing
After a medical history assessment, in a Reflexology treatment Chantal
first conducts a “Thumb Walk”, pointing out tender areas of the bottom
of a person’s feet. These areas are documented and treatment is focused
A machine called “The Drummer” is then used on the bottom and top of
the feet, similar to massage machines. The Drummer can stimulate areas
deeper and more effectively than fingers.
Chantal graduated from the Modern Institute of Reflexology with a 4.0
grade point average and recently became certified as a Lay Minister of
Reflexology treatments can be arranged with Chantal at the Wellness
Complex. For more information, contact her at the wellness complex, 641-394-5433
or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Now, at first glance, one reaction to this letter is that reflexology is probably
pretty harmless, and this is the kind of New Age faith-based treatment that
the majority of people seem to want these days. I've had foot massages on a
number of occasions and they do feel pretty darn good, so I'm sure that the
majority of Chantal's customers will come away feeling wonderful, at least
until the massage wears off. Nothing wrong with that part of it at all.
But I wish that the New Hampton Tribune hadn't taken Chantal's press release
so literally and reprinted it with so little reflection on its contents. What
we have here is a newspaper advising its readers where to get a "medical
from a person with no medical training whatsoever. (If Chantal had any medical
training, I'm sure she would have listed it on her resume before "Lay
Minister of Reflexology.") This is absolutely unacceptable. From a liability
standpoint alone, it's insanity for a newspaper to print this; and from an
ethical standpoint it's egregious. The New Hampton Tribune has no excuse for
stating that reflexology can improve a person's general health. Suppose a reader
has a serious illness and goes to Chantal after reading this article, at the
expense of time and money which could have been spent on crucial medical treatment.
There is nothing in this article that suggests a patient should do anything
else. And this is the central risk of reflexology: that a believer, or even
a naive victim, will turn to reflexology in the belief that it can treat an
illness, at the expense of proper medical treatment. This delay of treatment
can result in serious injury or death.
I think my favorite part of Chantal's press release is that she trumpets her
4.0 grade point average from the Modern Institute of Reflexology. Notice that
you'll find the Institute prominently listed on Wikipedia's "List
of Unaccredited Institutions." Wow, a 4.0 GPA from an unaccredited correspondence school.
The Institute has a web
page describing the course of study to become a Lay Minister. The page
consists largely of prayers, scriptural passages, and even a discussion of
Biblical foot washing (for some reason, this particular institute mixes a large
dose of Christianity in with Reflexology's usual paranormal claims). Sounds
like a pretty rigorous medical course to me.
The article also states that Chantal is "certified" as a Lay Minister.
Since any certification that she might have is from an unaccredited correspondence
school about Biblical foot washing, and not from any medical board approved
by the American Board of Medical Specialties, it's irresponsible of the newspaper
to call her "certified" when she's offering what she calls a "medical
history assessment". Chantal, and any other reflexologist who uses the
word "medical", is about two inches away from prosecution for practicing
medicine without a license, and any newspaper worth its salt should have refused
to run her press release. In no way is any reflexologist certified to give
any type of medical assessment, diagnosis, or treatment. To do so would be
New Hampton Tribune, clean up your act. People say "Don't shoot the messenger,"
I am shooting the messenger. Your article is irresponsible and endangers
the health of your readers. Chickasaw Wellness Complex, what can I say. Offer
massages, they're wonderful things. I haven't heard whatever you might be telling
your customers, who are paying you for wellness, about reflexology — but
I hope it's factual and contributes to their health, and doesn't put them at
risk of seeking alternatives to needed medical treatment. And Scott Breitbach,
thank you for being the only voice of reason here and looking out for the health
of your fellow Iowans.
Cite this article:
Dunning, B. "Reflexology: Only Dangerous If You Use It." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media,
28 Jan 2007. Web.
10 Feb 2016. <http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4024>
References & Further Reading
Carpenter, Janet S., Neal, Jennifer G. "Other complementary and alternative medicine modalities: acupuncture, magnets, reflexology, and homeopathy." The American Journal of Medicine. 19 Dec. 2005, Volume 118, Issue 12: 109-117.
Ernst, E., Singh, S. Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine. New York: Bantam Press, 2008.
Ernst, Edzard. "Is reflexology an effective intervention? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials." Medical Journal of Australia. 7 Sep. 2009, Volume 191, Number 5: 263-266.
MIR. "Lay Ministry of Foot Reflexology & Biblical Foot Washing." Modern Institute of Reflexology. Modern Institute of Reflexology, 1 Jan. 2003. Web. 28 Jan. 2007. <http://www.reflexologyinstitute.com/career_minister.php>
Thompson, Damian. Counterknowledge: How We Surrendered to Conspiracy Theories, Quack Medicine, Bogus Science and Fake History. New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc., 2008. 78, 88.
Wikipedia. "List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 31 Oct. 2009. Web. 4 Nov. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unaccredited_educational_institutions>