With a net in one hand and a pH testing kit in the other, let's wade into the
murky waters of pond chemistry to test the latest fad in koi pond maintenance:
I was visiting my cousin up in Portland Oregon, and he showed me his cool
koi pond. Being a koi pond guy myself, we compared notes on filter equipment,
water testing, plant types, and all the usual stuff. His main filter pipe had
a group of powerful magnets arrayed around it, which was something I hadn't
seen before. I'm no super expert on ponds, so I guessed that maybe it was doing
something like grabbing out metal filings from the pump. I asked him what the
magnets were for, and he wasn't sure, but it was something to do with water
chemistry. Right away, my radar went up. Unless there were significant amounts
of iron, nickel, or cobalt in his water that required being magnetically held
against the side of the pipe, there's really no physical way for the magnets
to have any effect on anything in the water.
My cousin's friend at the pond store had recommended that he install the magnets,
and he'd followed her expert recommendation. After all, he had no reason to
doubt her suggestions. At my urging, he called her up to ask what the heck
the magnets were supposed to do. She hemmed and hawed, said something about
water clarity or chemistry or algae, and finally confessed that she had no
idea, and that it was just a standard thing that a lot of pond owners do. The
magnets were pretty expensive, so it wasn't surprising that a pond store would
So I turned to the Internet, as I often do in times of need. It didn't take
much searching to find the standard claim about magnets and ponds, and it has
to do with algae growth. The claim is that magnets, mounted inline along any
of the pipes, improve water clarity by altering iron alignment in free-floating
algae, thus inhibiting photosynthesis. I also found one or two references to
reducing lime scale build-up inside the pipes, but since this claim didn't
even pretend to suggest a mechanism that might produce this effect, I discounted
it. Lime scale is calcium carbonate. It contains none of the three magnetic
elements and is thus completely unaffected by magnets. That claim pretty much
busts itself, no help from me needed.
So what about this reduction of algae? The claim is that the algae will be
reduced because its photosynthesis will be inhibited, due to the realignment
of its iron. This is a fairly common type of claim. It makes no sense, but
because it uses common scientific-sounding words, many people will simply accept
it at face value without questioning it. My cousin's friend at the pond store
did, and when she repeated it to my cousin, he did too. I even accepted it
when he told me, albeit tentatively, pending some kind of reasonable explanation.
Here are the two problems with this claim. Number one, photosynthesis is a
chemical reaction among carbohydrates. Iron is not involved. The presence of
iron would neither hinder nor help photosynthesis. The magnetic orientation
of any iron molecules nearby is not relevant. Realigning iron magnetically
has no bearing on photosynthesis, and will not harm a plant in any way. Number
two, iron, which is found in human blood hemoglobin, is not present
in chlorophyll or in the other proteins involved in plant photosynthesis. Although
I've never spent the time to wave a magnet past a plant several times a day,
I'd be awfully surprised if that plant's photosynthesis stopped and it died
as a result.
Another problem with this claim is the concept that briefly passing a non-magnetic
object through a magnetic field will leave it altered after the magnet is removed.
This is like turning the light in a room on then off again, and expecting the
furniture to be somehow residually contaminated with light. Electromagnetic
radiation doesn't work that way.
I should mention that when I set out to research this claim, I didn't merely
gather enough information to shoot the claim down and then quit. I did make
a good effort to find research supporting the effects of magnets on algae.
But, since there are no plausible claims, there has never really been anything
for anyone to test. However, I did find something close. In 2005, the Woods
Hole Oceanographic Institute announced the results of research they'd done
on certain bacteria that are known to carry magnetic crystals. These are called
magnetotactic bacteria. In 1970, magnetotactic bacteria were also discovered
in the Southern Hemisphere whose magnetic crystals were flipped around. The
purpose of these tiny internal compasses has never been known, but since the
1970 discovery, the working hypothesis has been that they use the compasses
to help navigate either up or down to find water with the best oxygen concentration.
This would be consistent with the need for the polarity to be reversed in the
Alas for the pond magnet manufacturers, Woods Hole's research found that north-polarity
and south-polarity bacteria are both found intermixed in both hemispheres,
and also that there are numerous individuals who lack the crystals completely.
All three types of bacteria navigate equally well to the water depths with
the most desirable oxygen levels. The conclusion of the research is that the
purpose of the magnetic crystals remains unknown, but it's clear that its reversal
or even its total lack makes no difference to the health or life cycle of the
bacteria. And, once the bar magnet was removed from the microscope slide, the
magnetotactic bacteria realigned themselves normally with the earth's magnetic
field, according to the polarity of each. There were no residual effects of
having been briefly placed near a magnet.
I recommend that you do your own research, or at least ask for a reasonable
explanation, when a salesman offers you a product that claims to accomplish
something far fetched or contrary to your understanding of the laws of nature.
Cite this article:
Dunning, B. "Pond Magnet Foolishness." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media,
14 Nov 2006. Web.
11 Feb 2016. <http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4007>
References & Further Reading
Blakemore, R., Frankel, R., Kalmijn, A. "South-seeking magnetotactic bacteria in the Southern Hemisphere." Nature. 24 Jul. 1980, Volume 286, Number 5771: 384-385.
Buttner, J., Soderberg, R., Terlizzi, D. "An Introduction to Water Chemistry in Freshwater Aquaculture." The Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC). The Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC), 1 Jan. 1993. Web. 14 Nov. 2006. <http://aquanic.org/publicat/usda_rac/efs/nrac/nrac170.pdf>
Fletcher, N. The Ultimate Koi. Lydney, Gloucestershire: Ringpress Books Ltd, 1999. 168.
Murata, N. "Effect of magnetism on the growth of Dunaliella Salina." Research in photosynthesis: proceedings of the IXth International Congress. 30 Aug. 1992, Volume III: 87-90.
Schüler, D. Magnetoreception and Magnetosomes in Bacteria. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2007. 2-5.
Skomal, G. Freshwater Aquarium: Your Happy Healthy Pet. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, 2005. 43.