Student Questions: A Few Good Myths

Skeptoid answers another round of questions sent in by students all around the world.

by Brian Dunning

Filed under Feedback & Questions

Skeptoid #277
September 27, 2011
Podcast transcript | Listen | Subscribe

These episodes where we answer student questions are among my favorites, because after all, schools are our best opportunity to promote the value of scientificand critical thinking. The best prepared student is the one with the best tools to make good life decisions. Today's questions are a great batch; half of these I'd never even heard of, and I have a pretty good handle on what pseudoscientific woo is currently being promoted out there in the world. What's really great about them is that while they all sound like woo at first, some of them turn out to be legit. You can never let your critical thinking filter get lazy. You don't want your filter catching false positives just because they raise all the red flags at first. So let's begin with a controversial belief that's currently riding a pretty good wave of popular consciousness:

Hi Brian, this is Mike from Canterbury, England. Some of my obsessively healthy friends rave about the "paleo diet" or "caveman diet", and they're in great shape. There appears to be some kind of science (or what sounds like science) behind it, but is it really all as simple as "prehistoric is good, modern is bad"? I'd love to know what you think. Cheers!

The "paleolithic diet" is a fad diet based on excluding from the diet any foods developed in recorded history. Like most restrictive diets, it's generally perfectly healthy and low calorie. And, like most other diets, if adhered to it should indeed result in weight loss and generally better health. Those are the facts.

Unfortunately, many promoters of the paleo diet go well beyond the facts and make untrue and irresponsible health claims, such as their diet will prevent all sorts of diseases. That's just an unscientific sales pitch. If you want to be in great shape, exercise a lot and eat well. That's the most basic health advice of all. There is no one magical fad diet that's needed, certainly not one as arbitrarily defined as this one. If you were to survey the world's top athletes, I think you'd find very few who owe the credit to a fad diet and not to hard work and healthy living.

Hi Brian, Friedemann Masur here from the University of Groningen studying psychology. Have you ever heard of EMDR - Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and like NLP its sounds to me like very much like these Eye Movement patterns which are really bogus but we were astounded to hear that one of our highly respected professors spoke for it and spoke very highly of it. So what do you make of EMDR? Thanks.

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is a type of psychotherapy intended to help an individual cope with a traumatic memory. The theory is that extremely distressing memories are too hard to process, and that guided bilateral stimulation of the brain while focusing on the memories may help them to be fully processed and become less traumatic. In the case of one acquaintance who witnessed a very horrible death, her trick is to wave a finger from left to right in front of her face, keeping her eyes on it, and it calms her right down. She can do this on her own, and it gives her a link back to the original therapy.

EMDR not nearly as fringey as it sounds. The main controversy about it is not whether it works, but rather what the true mechanism is. Some argue that the bilateral eye movements don't actually contribute, and that the mechanism is actually the repeated exposure and resulting desensitization similar to what you get from more traditional therapy.

I am Orlando Medeiros, a cooking student from Brasilia, Brasil, age 23. I have been told by professional cooks that rubbing your hands with a stainless steel object, such as a spoon or a specially designed stainless steel soap bar, can help remove unpleasant odors like egg from your hands. I haven't found any evidence for stainless steel doing anything soap, detergent, and vinegar cannot do, yet this idea seems to be very widespread over here. Do you have any information on the mysterious cleansing applications of stainless steel? Thanks.

I have only been able to find anecdotal evidence that washing with stainless steel and cold water actually does work better than water alone to remove the smell of garlic and onions from your hands — a huge amount of such evidence. Many stores sell pieces of stainless steel specifically for this purpose, but as many reports agree, any piece of stainless steel will work (such as cutlery or even the sides of a stainless steel sink). It's interesting that you mention egg as another smell for which this works; the infamous "rotten egg" smell is caused by hydrogen sulfide in the egg, and sulfides and related thiols are also the odor causing agents in garlic and onions.

I couldn't find any good research that I'd put forth as an authoritative explanation, but a leading consensus is that the stainless steel itself is not a reactant but a catalyst. Breaking down those thiols and sulfides is the idea, and ions either from the stainless steel itself or from oxides that bond to it are a potential key. Some say this reaction breaks the bonds holding the molecules to your hands, allowing them to be washed away; others say the molecules themselves are broken down and rendered odorless.

Another possibility that has not been discounted is simple acclimation and confirmation bias. Smell the garlic once and it will smell less the second time, because you're more acclimated. If you've washed your hands with stainless steel in the interim (or a magic crystal or anything else), you're likely to attribute the reduced smell to the use of the object. Chemistry is cool, and so is psychology.

Hello Brian, my name is Cuauhtemoc, and I am from the University of Guadalajara in Mexico, and here is my question. Is there enough information to know if polyphasic sleeping is a safe, or even just a possible, alternative to the monophasic form that most of us have? It would be great to have those extra six hours of waking time every day. Thank you.

Monophasic sleeping is what most of us do; you sleep once a day. In polyphasic sleeping, you take short naps throughout the day, like many animals do; with the idea being that, in total, you'll need less sleep. As infants we were all polyphasic sleepers, but as we develop, we settle into a biphasic state. According to EEG data that is backed up by cortisol and melatonin levels, blood pressure, and other measurements, our bodies want to sleep through the night and take a mid-day siesta. Most of us push through that mid-day drop in alertness and creativity, and remain monophasic.

A lot of famous people are said to have been polyphasic sleepers, like Leonardo da Vinci, Thomas Edison, or Benjamin Franklin, but these are all urban legends that don't stand up to biographical scrutiny. Some have been "free runners", working whenever they want and sleeping whenever they have to. Buckminster Fuller gave this up because of the conflicts with normal peoples' schedules, and Nikola Tesla would often binge work through the night but needed to crash afterwards for a full day or more. Very few people who attempt a polyphasic lifestyle are successful at it, and almost nobody reports having six extra hours of ready-to-rock wakefulness. Probably your best bet is to do what your body wants: Sleep through the night until you wake up on your own, with no alarm clock; then take a short mid-day nap. This is what most of our bodies are asking us for.

Hello Brian, my name is Julian and I am from Malaysia, and my question is: Do burning in headphones improve sound quality?

Tip Skeptoid $2/mo $5/mo $10/mo One time

No, burn-in of headphones and other audio equipment is just one more dimension of the snake-oil world of high end audio, akin to super-duper speaker wire. Burn-in is the process of turning on new equipment, sometimes under extreme conditions, to reveal defects. It's a common, and almost always worthless, tacked-on optional extra by some retailers of electronic equipment. Once in a while burn-in will reveal a defective component, thus saving the customer the trouble of taking the device home to discover it on his own; but as far as burn-in actually improving the performance of consumer electronics, then no, there is no evidence or plausible reasoning behind this.

Hi Brian, my aunt's laptop has slowed down so much that she has decided to upgrade. Most of us have noticed that a Windows installation on a PC will operate more slowly over time. Some claim this is malicious, to coerce users into upgrading their hardware. My friends say this is due to the registry becoming cluttered, and that Windows should be re-installed periodically. Is there a simple, known cause for the slowdown? P.S. This is not a request for tech support. Jaime Allan, the United Kingdom.

The theory that Microsoft conspires with PC manufacturers to make performance degrade over time, thus requiring upgrades to new PCs, makes little sense. Microsoft would have to write this gradual decline into their operating system, presumably in exchange for some kickback from the PC makers. Is Microsoft really so desperate for cash that they'd risk losing customers to competing operating systems like Mac and Chrome and Linux? Giving your customers a deliberately crippled product is certainly an established way to get them to upgrade in the future; but these days, Microsoft also has to worry about keeping them from defecting today.

Gradual performance degradation is what we'd expect to see from any PC even without the existence of a conspiracy. Bloat is a real, non-spectral culprit. Software gets bigger and more demanding of system resources, random downloads and extensions install themselves and consume processor cycles, hard disks get fragmented, free space available for swap files shrinks. Computers twenty years ago were just as snappy as computers today, because their simpler software required much less of the hardware.

I have no doubt that some conspiracy theorist can point to some existing licensing deal that Microsoft has with PC manufacturers and describe it as consistent with the existence of the conspiracy. I say, prove the conspiracy. Show me the code written into Windows that executes the gradual performance decline. Until they do, tell your aunt that her computer is not the only one that needs to keep up.

Brian Dunning

© 2011 Skeptoid Media Copyright information

References & Further Reading

Bar-Lev, R. "Is the Paleo Diet a Fad Diet? A Non-Biased Analysis." Passionate Fitness. Passionate Fitness, 1 Oct. 2010. Web. 14 Sep. 2011. <>

Editors. "Does a Bit of Steel Get Rid of That Garlic Smell?" All Things Considered. National Public Radio, 11 Nov. 2006. Web. 20 Sep. 2011. <>

Lilienfeld, S. "EMDR Treatment: Less Than Meets the Eye?" Quackwatch. Stephen Barrett, MD, 17 Apr. 2011. Web. 25 Sep. 2011. <>

Pace-Schott, E., Hobson, J. "The neurobiology of sleep: Genetics, cellular physiology and subcortical networks." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 1 Jan. 2002, Volume 3, Number 8: 591-605.

Smith, P. "GOOD Asks the Experts: Is The "Paleolithic Diet" Really Better?" Good Food. Good Worldwide, LLC, 6 Mar. 2011. Web. 26 Sep. 2011. <>

Wozniak, P. "Polyphasic Sleep: Facts and Myths." Super Memory. SuperMemo World, 1 Jan. 2005. Web. 20 Sep. 2011. <>

Reference this article:
Dunning, B. "Student Questions: A Few Good Myths." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, 27 Sep 2011. Web. 4 Sep 2015. <>


10 most recent comments | Show all 60 comments

Brian,thanks for your informative site,keep up your excellent work.The headphone(should be all speakers and electronic gear) answer is clearly not your best work. Have another try, do some research this time and get back to us. Looking forward to a serious answer here.

avel, melbourne
November 10, 2011 8:34pm

I have to admit, I have never heard anything as feckless as burn in of headphones until Brian mentioned it..

The speaker wire gaff is dealt elsewhere.

Mud, on the road, nsw, Oz
November 14, 2011 2:04am

Hi Brian,

I just listened to this episode, and coincidentally, received an email newsletter from Stereophile magazine's online headphone reviewer, who is apparently also interested in the topic of burn-in, and has some measurements forthcoming. Link here:

Might not be the hardest of science or the most unbiased source, but it might be interesting to follow up on.


Ian Kovtunovich, Portland, OR
November 14, 2011 2:02pm

I have been researching EMDR because it has been recommended for a family member. What I've found (including the one reference you listed) is that there's no evidence for it outside of treatment for PTSD. And even for PTSD, studies are weak and show little or no effect beyond standard therapies like cognitive behavioral therapy. Couple that with the fact that there is no plausible theory for how it works, EMDR is appears to be wildly-popular pseudoscience. That's certainly the conclusion of the article you reference from So how did you reach your conclusion that EMDR works (and needs only to have its functional mechanism discovered)? All I can find are personal anecdotes, fanciful claims, and wishy-washy studies.

Matt, Fort Collins, Colorado
February 10, 2012 8:39am

Windows installations gain girth over time because Microsoft constantly sends out updates via the internet to patch security holes, improve compatibility, update drivers, and fix various other issues.

If your computer is running drastically slower a few years after you bought it, assuming you bought decent hardware, then the problem is the way you are using it. I clean computers for people all the time, and many of them run slow because of malware that the user inadvertently installed (contrary to popular opinion, software will not install onto your computer all by itself).

Another common problem is they've installed a variety of software that they don't use or need that starts up all by itself every time Windows boots. If you try out software and decide you don't like it, or stop using it, then uninstall it.

Of course, there's also bloatware, that comes from the factory, but this has nothing to do with Windows; it's put there by the PC manufacturer to help subsidize the cost of the PC. I usually remove this stuff first.

When I setup a Windows install, I disable services that I don't need. I do maintenance on about a monthly basis, uninstalling programs I don't use and deleting files I don't need. I don't run antivirus because I don't click on things that I shouldn't. I get 4+ years out of every computer I build and they never degrade in performance to the point of being unbearable.

A solid state hard drive will drastically improve the performance of almost any older PC.

Adam, Maryland
May 7, 2012 7:31pm

I choose to register myself as an "audio equipment burn-in" hopeful.

John, Seoul
August 29, 2012 12:29am

O Dear God Yes the Paleo Diet is a miracle prevention for impacted wisdom teeth. You see, the amount of dirt and grit in the Paleo Diet wears down the molars of growing children so that, by the age of puberty and young adulthood, there is sufficient space in the jaw for the third molars to come in. SO to be sure your children never have to have the traumatic dental surgery required to remove impacted wisdsom teeth, be sure to wash a food in dirty, sandy water, paticularly leafy vegetables. The contaminants in the water will also boost your child's immune response, killing off any weaklings, so that by your child is ready to have children you may be sure that you have reared a strong healty breeder for the continuation of the species.


Swampwitch, Gainesville Fl
September 9, 2013 4:05am

Thats a very short time to grow some new teeth after grinding deciduous teeth away.

Phytolith does a damn good job all by itself. look at the jaws of any ruminant..

I sympathise with your sentiment on the matter of palaeo twittery but Homo bbqensis existed before the palaeo diet and that it is proposed where this pesky dentition problem started.

If the diet has a name, its probably garbage and should be avoided.

Mind you, chasing down wildebeest with sticks and smarts does keep one fit and a healthy 20 year old (on average) corpse.

Palaeo diet, like the japanese cultural whaling programs ,should stick to their traditional methodologies not rhetoric.

Molesey Dirtley, Greenacres by the sea Oz
September 9, 2013 5:45am

I think Brian hit the Microsoft question really well. As a tech professional I'd like to add the following points:

--Hardware degrades over time. Even SSDs have a finite lifetime. Turning a computer on and off (heating up and cooling down) has the same effect as on everything else: it expands and contracts. Do that enough and it will break. Do that a little bit, and performance will degrade.

--User expectations of what the computer "should" do become more and more demanding. For one user at my workplace I finally had to say, "Your expectations of what tax-payer funded computers can do are too high." :-)

Dave, Lexin
October 17, 2014 1:53pm

Some computers can & have kept on working for decades or at least some old apple II computers did. With MS, crap can build up that is wasting operational ram. A clean reinstall can get rid of it and prevent you from having to use your hard drive swap file which can & will massively slow you down. Defragging a hard drive may also prove useful. You may also have sectors on your drive that is starting to fail. This can cause your drive to have to look for the same data more than once. Last & not least if you don't have enough ram to handle what you are doing the machine will run vastly slower due to swap file use. I can remember adding another gig of ram to school computers that were running painfully slow on one gig and they suddenly vastly sped up. I doubt if a new machine would have done any better for what they were doing.

Having said that this computer is about 8 yrs old. I bought it not long after Win 7 came out. It has an I7-920 processer, 9 gig of ram, and a terabyte of ram, and an improved video card driving a 4k monitor. I'd like to have USB 3 connectors rather than two, a better video card, and my hard drive is well past the date when drives can be expected to fail but that's about it.

The machine has never been pushed by anything I do. While I'd like to replace a few parts the machine as whole is plenty fast enough.

Dwight E. Howell, Lawrenceburg TN
August 3, 2015 12:38pm

Make a comment about this episode of Skeptoid (please try to keep it brief & to the point).

Post a reply


What's the most important thing about Skeptoid?

Support Skeptoid

Sir Franklin's Cannibals
Skeptoid #482, Sep 1 2015
Read | Listen (12:13)
Captain Kidd's Treasure
Skeptoid #481, Aug 25 2015
Read | Listen (12:07)
The Nazi of Nanking
Skeptoid #480, Aug 18 2015
Read | Listen (13:49)
Skeptoid #479, Aug 11 2015
Read | Listen (14:28)
Listener Feedback: Natural History
Skeptoid #478, Aug 4 2015
Read | Listen (11:36)
#1 -
Read | Listen
#2 -
The Death of Rasputin
Read | Listen
#3 -
The Water Woo of Masaru Emoto
Read | Listen
#4 -
The St. Clair Triangle UFO
Read | Listen
#5 -
Tube Amplifiers
Read | Listen
#6 -
The Braxton County Monster
Read | Listen
#7 -
Read | Listen
#8 -
That Elusive Fibromyalgia
Read | Listen

Recent Comments...

[Valid RSS]

  Skeptoid PodcastSkeptoid on Facebook   Skeptoid on Twitter   Brian Dunning on Google+   Skeptoid on Stitcher   Skeptoid RSS

Members Portal


Follow @BrianDunning

Tweets about skeptoid

Support Skeptoid

Email: [Why do we need this?]To reduce spam, we email new faces a confirmation link you must click before your comment will appear.
characters left. Abusive posts and spam will be deleted.