The Loch Ness Monster

The world's most famous cryptid is said to swim in Scotland's most famous loch.

by Brian Dunning

Filed under Cryptozoology, Natural History, Urban Legends

Skeptoid #318
July 10, 2012
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Also available in Russian

Loch Ness Monster (Nobu Tamura)
Image: Nobu Tamura

Today we're going to plunge into the deep, dark, cold waters of Loch Ness, by volume the largest lake in Scotland. The world's most famous cryptid is said to live here, cruising about the black depths, and occasionally poking its head up to alarm passersby. The Loch Ness Monster, dubbed Nessie, is said to have been plaguing the loch since the sixth century when St. Columba commanded it to cease an attack on one of his followers. Since 1933, various photographs and films have been presented, said to depict a distant and hazy Nessie. Is Nessie a real animal, or does her value lie elsewhere?

There are three basic possibilities to explain the sightings at Loch Ness. The first is that an unknown species of megafauna actually does live in the lake and is responsible for at least some of the sightings. The second is that deliberate hoaxes are responsible, and we already know for a fact that this explains at least a few of the sightings. The third possibility, which probably explains most sightings even if either of the other two possibilities are true, is honest misinterpretations of ordinary or unknown objects or phenomena. So the major question that stands is whether any good evidence exists that is not explainable as #2 or #3. Does an unknown megafauna lurk beneath the surface?

Loch Ness is home to many species of animals. There are many fish, mainly salmon, trout, eel, char, and sturgeon, plus at least a dozen less common varieties. Otters live in the loch, and seals occasionally make the trip up the river from the North Sea, sometimes in small groups of up to five, and have been photographed in Loch Ness many times. There's even at least one confirmed photograph of a dolphin in the loch in the 1930s.

The loch is a bit of a biological desert. In most lakes, growth of phytoplankton is limited by available nutrients. Loch Ness is unusual in that its phytoplankton growth is limited instead by light. Nutrients such as phosphorus are available, but the water is so dark and opaque that photosynthesis is next to zero, strictly limiting the phytoplankton population. The reason for this murkiness is peat, the decayed vegetation that makes up much of the surrounding soil.

Like any lake, Loch Ness has all sorts of natural features which are going to look strange to observers. Boat wakes and converging waves create the appearance of a line of humps moving along. Birds and fish break the surface while feeding. Wind reefs create lines that appear to be the wake of a moving object. For every eyewitness report that might be of Nessie, we have to sort through fifty eyewitness reports that were actually of Mother Nature trying to trick us into thinking we were seeing Nessie.

Evidence for Nessie's existence is entirely anecdotal, meaning it consists of stories, photographs, and films that are not testable. We have no remains or reproducible sightings. The value of anecdotal evidence is to suggest directions for research, and so for nearly a century, researchers both amateur and professional have been following up on these leads hoping to find proof. So far all we've accumulated are more stories and more dubious photographs.

There are really only three photographs that unambiguously show a monster-like animal. Photos are one of the most exciting pieces of evidence, and they're the ones that stay in our memories the longest. The first of these is perhaps one of the most widely published photographs in the world, and it's the one you've probably seen yourself: the slightly blurry 1934 black-and-white image of a plesiosaur-style neck and head stretching up out of the loch's waters. Dubbed the "surgeon's photo" since photographer Lt. Col. Robert Wilson was a doctor, this has been the keynote icon for Nessie for most of a century. Attempts by skeptics to assign it an alternate explanation, such as the head and neck of a deer swimming across the loch, fell pretty flat; it's clearly not a deer. The only thing suspicious about the photo was the size of the creature compared to the natural wavelets in the water around it. It seemed quite small, about sock-puppet sized. And so it was not surprising — though undoubtedly disappointing — when, sixty years after the photo was taken, one of the conspirators revealed the facts.

A man named Marmaduke Wetherell had once gained himself a bit of Nessie notoriety by taking a hippo-foot umbrella stand and stamping some fake Nessie footprints into the mud with it. He was not pleased with the way the Daily Mail newspaper treated him in the aftermath, and so he decided to get a bit of revenge, perhaps figuring that two wrongs made a right. Wetherell engaged the services of his stepson, Christian Spurling, to build Nessie for him. Spurling purchased a toy submarine about 35cm long (just over a foot) and soldered a lead keel to it for stability. He then spent a total of eight days crafting the head and neck out of wood filler putty. They took the contraption down to the loch, and Wetherell's son Ian snapped the photograph. They engaged their friend Col. Wilson to be the front man, contrived a story for him to tell about how he came to see and photograph the beast, and then the picture was duly provided to the newspapers.

This exposé was broken to the press in March of 1994 by Loch Ness zoologist David Martin and his friend, London art teacher and Nessie enthusiast Alastair Boyd. Martin had seen a 1975 newspaper article in which Ian Wetherell detailed his role in the hoax, an article which, for some reason, had failed to attract much attention. Boyd and Martin tracked down the last of the surviving conspirators, Christian Spurling, who was 93 years old, close to death, and happy to talk about his submarine. Spurling died in September of 1993, then Boyd and Martin wrote and published Nessie: The Surgeon's Photograph Exposed.

The second unambiguous photo, taken in the early 1970s by attorney and Nessie researcher Robert Rines, is a deepwater black-and-white closeup of a diamond-shaped fin protruding from a large body, called the "flipper photo". Although widely published and very distinct, the flipper photo turns out to have a discouraging history. It was, basically, a painting. Rines said it was merely "enhanced", but a comparison with the original (widely available on the Internet) shows that the actual subject was completely indistinct, to the point that it's not even clear if there was anything there or not. In dark Loch Ness, if anything was close enough to the camera to be visible, it would be close enough to make out.

The third popular photo also came from the Rines underwater expeditions, and shows what appears to be an extremely grainy, though relatively distinct, full view of a plesiosaur-like creature arcing through the water, complete with long neck and short stumpy legs. The obvious problem with this picture is that to fit into the frame, a plesiosaur would have to be far enough from the camera that it would be completely invisible — which in murky Loch Ness requires only about a meter. It turns out that this requisite nearness to the camera explains the photo's nickname, the "treestump photo". During Operation Deepscan, a 1987 effort to comprehensively sonar map the loch, sponsored by sonar manufacturer Lowrance for publicity, Rines' exact same tree stump was rediscovered... still in the same position, and still showing the miniature plesiosaur (assuming a bit of imagination).

That plesiosaur hypothesis is one that's been among the most popular for some time, but as cool as that would be, it's not very likely. First, Loch Ness did not exist until the glaciers that cut it receded about 10,000 years ago. By then, plesiosaurs had been extinct for 65,000,000 years, but even if a relic population had survived in the oceans, there was never a time when they could have swam into the loch. Elasmosaurus, the long-necked plesiosaur most often depicted in artist renderings of Nessie, had a long but very stiff neck. It was incapable of bending in the swanlike S-shape usually drawn. It couldn't bend up at all, eliminating it as a candidate for the surgeon's photo. Moreover, a neutrally buoyant animal is never able to lift so much mass out of the water without strongly driving upward, the way a dolphin's able to jump. The animal in the surgeon's photo seemed to be perfectly stable despite a hundred kilograms of meat lifted high above the surface. Nothing about it at all can be considered consistent with Elasmosaurus or any other plesiosaur.

Tip Skeptoid $2/mo $5/mo $10/mo One time

Whether a plesiosaur or any other type of air-breathing animal, Nessie manages to stay hidden implausibly well. Plesiosaurs probably needed to come up for air at least once an hour. A breeding population necessary for minimal genetic diversity would require at least 100 individuals. This means that there should be a minimum of several thousand heads popping up per day for air. Given that there are so few sightings, in light of the number of eyes watching the loch every day, the possibility that any air-breathing yet unseen animals are in the loch becomes vanishingly small.

Let's take a closer look at that ancient tale of St. Columba commanding the monster to go away. This story appears in the second of three books about St. Columba written by the seventh century abbot St. Adomnán of Iona. This series is considered one of the most important of all surviving texts from ancient Scotland. The second book is all about various miracles said to have been performed by St. Columba. If the book is to be taken literally, St. Columba regularly raised his hand and caused the instant deaths of numerous wild beasts, men who had spurned him, wicked men, and other enemies. He controlled the weather, he had the powers of transmutation and telekinesis, and performed countless miraculous healings. One of the beasts he faced was said to be in the River Ness (not in Loch Ness as usually reported). It was a great roaring monster with a huge mouth. The tale has, essentially, nothing whatsoever in common with modern Nessie sightings, and is not even from Loch Ness. Considering the wild, theatrical nature of Adomnán's books and their evident fictional or allegorical genre, it's hard to give this specific chapter any special treatment as being a factual historical account.

The Loch Ness Monster is one of the few mysteries that captures and stimulates the imagination. It did for me, and it helped prompt a lifelong desire for learning. What glides in the darkness beneath the wind-speckled surface of Loch Ness is not so much a monster as a dream. It's the promise of mystique and of revelation. It's the temptation of solving a puzzle that has eluded so many, of the discovery of a prize that no one has yet captured, of seeing what nobody has seen. Nessie embodies the drive that powers all science and research. Long may she swim.

Brian Dunning

© 2012 Skeptoid Media Copyright information

References & Further Reading

Binns, R. The Loch Ness Mystery Solved. Buffalo: Prometheus, 1984.

Campbell, S. The Loch Ness Monster: The Evidence. Buffalo: Prometheus, 1985.

Hill, S. "What Do Living Dinosaurs, the Loch Ness Monster, and the Ku Klux Klan Have in Common?" Doubtful News. Sharon Hill and Torkel Ødegård, 24 Jun. 2012. Web. 1 Jul. 2012. <>

Jones, R., Young, J., Hartley, A., Bailey-Watts, A. "Light Limitation of Phytoplankton Development in an Oligotrophic Lake: Loch Ness, Scotland." Freshwater Biology. 1 Jun. 1996, Volume 35, Issue 3: 533-543.

Lyons, S. "The Legend of Loch Ness." NOVA. PBS Online, 12 Jan. 1999. Web. 1 Jul. 2012. <>

Mendham, T. "Nessie's Secret Revealed." The Skeptic. 1 Apr. 1994, Volume 14, Number 2: 26-28.

Reference this article:
Dunning, B. "The Loch Ness Monster." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, 10 Jul 2012. Web. 27 Aug 2015. <>


10 most recent comments | Show all 35 comments

Ron, I hope the lines were tight.

The thing about fishing is; you target a species and generally prosper. Sure, switch tactics for another species.

It would be nice if monster hunters could be just a little bit more precise after about about 80 years of targetting.

Ron, I'll swap a few teratornis feathers for your op scales...

Mind you, I know a few of the guys in teratornis

Mud, Sin City
April 30, 2013 4:38am

Smells fishy to me.. BRB.. Bigfoots in my garden

Patrick, San Francisco USA
June 1, 2013 7:19pm

Just got back from Scotland, and I must confess, this time that trip included a jolly Loch Ness boat tour. Other than a lot of water, there wasn't anything much to see. However, our stalwart captain had a lot to say about "Nessie" sightings. Part of it was gratitude for the existence of an exceptional tourist economy in that part of Scotland. The rest was an explanation of various sighting reports, including his own from a couple decades back. The captain took pains to explain why the various cryptobiological explanations for the sightings were a crock. Then he explained how all the various clues - lake conditions, weather, available food species, etc. - led to his conclusion that Nessie was probably nothing more than the occasional surface breaching by large fish, perhaps bottom feeders such as catfish. My respect for the guy went up considerably as he offered this completely rational, down-to-earth explanation while simultaneously implying his customers should trim back their expectations for stray plesiosaurs or other mysterious beasts. He makes his living from Nessie, but is the first to tell you its reputation exceeds it.

Bill Kowalski, Webster Groves, Missouri
June 14, 2013 5:00pm

I grew up loving the Loch Ness Monster legend. It combines paleontology and mythology which to to me as a kid was almost better than ghosts. I went to Loch Ness last year as a skeptical adult and coming from a boring, flat part of Australia it was just a gorgeous setting. Whether or not there is a Nessie (and it's more likely not), still visit Loch Ness. It is just beautiful and the whisky is well worth it.

Anne-marie, Australia
June 24, 2013 6:12am

So the author says that dolphins can swim into the lake but never at anytime could a sea animal like the plesio have swam in there? also Rines was a very credible person in life and was not after a quick dollar so I don't see how you could dispute his words by your opnion when he is much more credible then you are. Also the loch is insanely deep and dark and you have no idea what can lurk in there I am not saying it is a monster but no one knows for sure what it is. that's like you claiming you know what is in the ocean when we have only explored 5 to 10 percent of it. People like you think you know everything when in return you know nothing. You base decisions on nothing that is fact yet how can you truly come to a conclusion with out facts? no one can skeptics nor believers can come to a decision with out some sort of fact. But low and behold every skeptic I have ever met believes they can make a valid assumption based off nothing more then that a simple assumption, you are no better then the believers. Being open minded is the only real way to approach something of this nature not looking for something but knowing of the possibilities. you are full of shit

youremorons, wow
July 29, 2013 7:57pm

Youmorons, When plesiosaurus was around there wasn't a loch.

Thanx for being so open minded. with the other comments.

Minty Dateroll, sin city, Oz
August 15, 2013 10:35pm

youremorons....your meds are in the mail......

I laugh at how some folks takes all of this stuff so seriously.

Skeptoid Fan, Canada
August 31, 2013 9:06am

"......Loch Ness has all sorts of natural features which are going to look strange to observers. Boat wakes and converging waves create the appearance of a line of humps moving along."

A 'standing wave'. You can see them in Canada's Okanakan Lake all the time, after the boat that made the wake is long gone. They sure get the tourists excited! Especially if you glance at a wave and say, "Oh that's nothing. Its just Ogopogo." then nonchalantly turn away and go back to what you were doing. :D

".....I hope the lines were tight.
The thing about fishing is; you target a species and generally prosper. Sure, switch tactics for another species....."

I grabbed my fishing rod when I saw and heard a bunch of tourists all agitated and pointing when they saw 'the monster'. Just as I cast I shouted, "I'm gonna get 'im!"

I guess they were too 'impressed' to notice that my hook was barely big enough to catch a small trout. :D

I never did catch him. Maybe I should have used an anchor with a side of beef on it..........?

Ron, Calgary Alberta Canada
October 21, 2013 1:37pm

no monster maybe sturgeon they can grow pretty big loch ness has only been there since last ice age ended. sorry nae beastie just a good myth.

andy, glasgow
February 28, 2014 5:47pm

There is a fourth possibility that has been discussed recently. It is said that some common eels can grow to a great age and size. They are known as eunuch eels:
Common eels do exist in Loch Ness, in considerable numbers. A very large eel could explain some of the common "low hump with wake" sightings. This theory does not require a breeding population of large unknown animals which is one of the less credible aspects of the Loch Ness monster.

Full disclosure: I holiday by the Loch frequently in hopes of seeing something. No luck so far.

David Evans, Cardiff, UK
July 19, 2014 9:31am

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