The Detoxification Myth

Everyone wants to "detoxify" their bodies. Is this for real?

Filed under Alternative Medicine, Consumer Ripoffs, Health

Skeptoid #83
January 15, 2008
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Today we're going to head into the bathroom and suck the toxins out of our bodies through our feet and through our bowels, and achieve a wonderful sense of wellness that medical science just hasn't caught onto yet. Today's topic is the myth of detoxification, as offered for sale by alternative practitioners and herbalists everywhere.

To better understand this phenomenon, it's necessary to define what they mean by toxins. Are they bacteria? Chemical pollutants? Trans fats? Heavy metals? To avoid being tested, they leave this pretty vague. Actual medical treatments will tell you exactly what they do and how they do it. Alternative detoxification therapies don't do either one. They pretty much leave it up to the imagination of the patient to invent their own toxins. Most people who seek alternative therapy believe themselves to be afflicted by some kind of self-diagnosed poison; be it industrial chemicals, McDonald's cheeseburgers, or fluoridated water. If the marketers leave their claims vague, a broader spectrum of patients will believe that the product will help them. And, of course, the word "toxin" is sufficiently scientific-sounding that it's convincing enough by itself to many people.

Let's assume that you work in a mine or a chemical plant and had some vocational accident, and fear that you might have heavy metal poisoning. What should you do? Any responsible person will go to a medical doctor for a blood test to find out for certain whether they have such poisoning. A person who avoids this step, because they prefer not to hear that the doctor can't find anything, is not a sick person. He is a person who wants to be sick. Moreover, he wants to be sick in such a way that he can take control and self-medicate. He wants an imaginary illness, caused by imaginary toxins.

Now it's fair for you to stop me at this point and call me out on my claim that these toxic conditions are imaginary. I will now tell you why I say that, and then as always, you should judge for yourself.

Let's start with one of the more graphic detoxification methods, gruesomely pictured on web sites and in chain emails. It's a bowel cleansing pill, said to be herbal, which causes your intestines to produce long, rubbery, hideous looking snakes of bowel movements, which they call mucoid plaque. There are lots of pictures of these on the Internet, and sites that sell these pills are a great place to find them. Look at DrNatura.com, BlessedHerbs.com, and AriseAndShine.com, just for a start. Imagine how terrifying it would be to actually see one of those come out of your body. If you did, it would sure seem to confirm everything these web sites have warned about toxins building up in your intestines. But there's more to it. As it turns out, any professional con artist would be thoroughly impressed to learn the secrets of mucoid plaque (and, incidentally, the term mucoid plaque was invented by these sellers; there is no such actual medical condition). These pills consist mainly of bentonite, an absorbent, expanding clay similar to kitty litter. Combined with psyllium, used in the production of mucilage polymer, bentonite forms a rubbery cast of your intestines when taken internally, mixed of course with whatever else your body is excreting. Surprise, a giant rubbery snake of toxins in your toilet.

It's important to note that the only recorded instances of these "mucoid plaque" snakes in all of medical history come from the toilets of the victims of these cleansing pills. No gastroenterologist has ever encountered one in tens of millions of endoscopies, and no pathologist has ever found one during an autopsy. They do not exist until you take such a pill to form them. The pill creates the very condition that it claims to cure. And the results are so graphic and impressive that no victim would ever think to argue with the claim.

Victims, did I call them? Creating rubber casts of your bowels might be gross but I haven't seen that it's particularly dangerous, so why are they victims? A one month supply of these pills costs $88 from the web sites I mentioned. $88 for a few pennies worth of kitty litter in a pretty bottle promising herbal and organic cleansing. Yeah, they're victims.

It's already been widely reported that alternative practitioners who provide colon cleansing with tubes and liquids have killed a number of their customers by causing infections and perforated bowels, and for this reason the FDA has made it illegal to sell such equipment, except for use in medical colon cleansing to prepare for radiologic endoscopic examinations. There is no legally sold colon cleansing equipment approved for general well being or detoxification.

As usual, the alternative practitioners stay one step ahead of the law. There are a number of electrical foot bath products on the market. The idea is that you stick your feet in the bath of salt water, usually with some herbal or homeopathic additive, plug it in and switch it on, and soak your feet. After a while the water turns a sickly brown, and this is claimed to be the toxins that have been drawn out of your body through your feet. One tester found that his water turned brown even when he did not put his feet in. The reason is that electrodes in the water corrode via eletrolysis, putting enough oxidized iron into the water to turn it brown. When reporter Ben Goldacre published these results in the Guardian Unlimited online news, some of the marketers of these products actually changed their messaging to admit this was happening — but again, staying one step ahead — now claim that their product is not about detoxification, it's about balancing the body's energy fields: Another meaningless, untestable claim.

But detoxifying through the feet didn't end there. A newcomer to the detoxification market is Kinoki foot pads, available at BuyKinoki.com. These are adhesive gauze patches that you stick to the sole of your foot at night, and they claim to "draw" "toxins" from your body. They also claim that all Japanese people have perfect health, and the reason is that they use Kinoki foot pads to detoxify their bodies, a secret they've been jealously guarding from medical science for hundreds of years. A foolish claim like this is demonstrably false on every level, and should raise a huge red flag to any critical reader. Nowhere in any of their marketing materials do they say what these alleged toxins are, or what mechanism might cause them to move from your body into the adhesive pad.

Kinoki foot pads contain unpublished amounts of vinegar, tourmaline, chitin, and other unspecified ingredients. Tourmaline is a semi-precious gemstone that's inert and not biologically reactive, so it has no plausible function. Chitin is a type of polymer used in gauze bandages and medical sutures, so naturally it's part of any gauze product. They probably mention it because some alternative practitioners believe that chitin is a "fat attractor", a pseudoscientific claim which has never been supported by any evidence or plausible hypothesis. I guess they hope that we will infer by extension that chitin also attracts "toxins" out of the body. Basically the Kinoki foot pads are gauze bandages with vinegar. Vinegar has many folk-wisdom uses when applied topically, such as treating acne, sunburn, warts, dandruff, and as a folk antibiotic. But one should use caution: Vinegar can cause chemical burns on infants, and the American Dietetic Association has tracked cases of home vinegar applications to the foot causing deep skin ulcers after only two hours.

Since the Kinoki foot pads are self-adhesive, peeling them away removes the outermost layer of dead skin cells. And since they are moist, they loosen additional dead cells when left on for a while. So it's a given that the pads will look brown when peeled from your foot, exactly like any adhesive tape would; though this effect is much less dramatic than depicted on the TV commercials, depending on how dirty your feet are. And, as they predict, this color will diminish over subsequent applications, as fewer and fewer of your dead, dirty skin cells remain. There is no magic detoxification needed to explain this effect. (Later news: In fact, Kinoki footpads contain powdered wood vinegar, which always turns brownish black when exposed to moisture, such as sweat. - BD)

$2/mo $5/mo $10/mo One time

Anyone interested in detoxifying their body might think about paying a little more attention to their body and less attention to the people trying to get their money. The body already has nature's most effective detoxification system. It's called the liver. The liver changes the chemical structure of foreign compounds so they can be filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, which then excrete them in the urine. I am left wondering why the alternative practitioners never mention this option to their customers. It's all-natural and proven effective. Is it ironic that the only people who will help you manage this all-natural option are the medical doctors? Certainly your naturopath won't. He wants to sell you some klunky half-legal hardware.

Why is it that so many people are more comfortable self-medicating for conditions that exist only in advertisements, than they are simply taking their doctor's advice? It's because doctors are burdened with the need to actually practice medicine. They won't hide bad news from you or make up easy answers to please you. But that's what people want: The easy answers promised by advertisements and alternative practitioners. They want the fantasy of being in complete personal control of what goes on inside their bodies. A doctor won't lie to you and say that a handful of herbal detoxification pills will cure anything that's wrong with you; but since that's the solution many people want, there's always someone willing to sell it.

Follow me on Twitter @BrianDunning.

Brian Dunning

© 2008 Skeptoid Media, Inc. Copyright information

References & Further Reading

Chappel, M. "Colon Therapeutics 23-Oct-03." FDA.gov. US Food and Drug Administration, 23 Oct. 2003. Web. 25 Dec. 2009. <http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/EnforcementActions/WarningLetters/2003/ucm147792.htm>

Fang, Hsai-Yang. Introduction to environmental geotechnology. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1997. 434-437.

Goldacre, Ben. "Be fit: The detox myth." The Guardian. 8 Jan. 2005, Newspaper: 9.

Lordan, Betsy. "FTC Charges Marketers of Kinoki Foot Pads With Deceptive Advertising; Seeks Funds for Consumer Redress." Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission, 28 Jan. 2009. Web. 25 Dec. 2009. <http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2009/01/xacta.shtm>

Moores, S. "Experts Warn of Detox Diet Dangers." NBC News. NBCNews.com, 18 May 2007. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18595886/ns/health-diet_and_nutrition/t/experts-warn-detox-diet-dangers/>

Singh, S., Ernst, E. Trick or treatment: the undeniable facts about alternative medicine. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2008. 226-227,308.

Reference this article:
Dunning, B. "The Detoxification Myth." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, Inc., 15 Jan 2008. Web. 21 Apr 2014. <http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4083>

Discuss!

10 most recent comments | Show all 753 comments

Dear skeptoid readers

This article is absolute blasphemous drivel. The slander and defaming of the mentioned companies is nonsense and disrespectful. With every product, regardless of wether or not it's use is beneficial, there will always be a snake oil salesmen looking to benefit himself through your ignorance. Then again, everyone's got to eat.

Mr. Skeptoid, you seem to look past the fact that bentonite clay for example is generally recognized as safe and beneficial. Please, be more concise with your arguements and dont blatenly mislead people from a food or substance that may be very profitable to the individual.

Everyone think for yourself and question authority!

Cody from, Vancouver bc
January 09, 2014 1:03am

Cody, you should do the same.

The irony and cognitive dissonance you display in your response tells me, at least, that you've taken up with a shaky, under-scrutinized, over-hyped, anti-science, crystal-gazing, new age crowd that prefers to stroke its collective ego rather than test its own pseudo-medical claims.

Alternative medicine is a huge business, nearly $34 billion is spent by Americans per year, as reported by consumerreports.org. Would it be correct to assume that a number of products and 'treatments' that are recommended and prescribed within such an industry have little or no medical benefits (i.e. spending 100s of dollars on Vitamin D shots to combat flu vs. a free inoculation at a local clinic)?

Because it isn't recognized by the Standard Medical Community, one of many ways the alt-med field to exist and prosper is to invent its own list of standards and practices, establish its own fields of study and degrees of practice that are loosely tied to traditional models and, above all, to advertise, advertise, advertise.

And I'm sorry, but I have yet to hear of someone calling 9-1-1 screaming for a naturopath. The training programs are seldom more than 4 yrs with only a few hundred hrs of in-field medical care (you've gotta be kidding me!) to earn a degree to practice, compared to the 8-12+ yrs a real MD has to undergo to get his/her license. And is it any wonder why naturopaths (here in Canada, at least) have no hospital rights.

George, Toronto, Ontario
January 11, 2014 4:41pm

Yes great article, I see a lot of anon reaction comments defending the shady business world of new age alternative nonsense. George has send it best, assuming all the fraud is true, no one is calling 911 to get his naturopath of their alternative dr.luck mcduck to come prescribe them clay tablets to watch the shape of poop !

When one is in serious health problems i am pretty sure these big believers will want a real doctor and hospital staff attending to them.

When they are dealing with imaginary issues they will trust there new age Dr. Well its free country if they want to blow their money and time on fraud its their option. As long as no one is dyeing of these questionable treatments.

Raw Foodists and Body Detox are the biggest scam artists in this business. They should be labelled as Cults for the way they treat anyone who doesn't agree with their stupid ideas. Raw Chocolates anyone ? :0) ....

bunoit, toronto, canada
January 13, 2014 8:21am

Wow, what a bunch of uneducated crap. Well most of it. Though the products mentioned might be suspect, detoxification itself is NOT a myth.

How is it that someone can talk about so many subjects he knows so little about.

Please Mr. Skeptic please keep reading other peoples work and commenting on it. So you continue to look lil san idiot.

or

Try doing some investigating.

Mackle, Seattle
January 17, 2014 5:06pm

The author of this article has clearly never experienced the benefits of doing a "cleanse." I personally have experienced more energy, healed eczema, healed hemorrhoids, no need for caffeine, unhealthy food & sugar cravings...gone, weight loss, improved digestive function, notably increased mental clarity, enhanced sense of well being and ease, emotional integration, better sleep, more energy upon waking, clearer skin...

"Cleansing" is truly a way to empower yourself and take control of your health. You will surely be surprised at the health benefits you receive...I promise you!!! I ask the author and all other "skeptics" to try a reputable and positively reviewed cleansing regimen...and then get back to us and see how your perspective might differ.

Maria, San Diego
January 27, 2014 8:40am

I have a friend using and selling isagenix products. From her conversation it's: a) I'm doing something, and b) social appeal.

Some who join an MLM plan, really quite enjoy the momentum and excitement of the rallies, meetings, and seminars.

I haven't been able to engage her in discussion of any other factors of product plausibility.

Robert Hale, Mesa, AZ, USA
February 20, 2014 11:06pm

The only "cleanse" I have personal experience with is confined to the kitchen, shower, and the ritual expurgation of the bowels required for that fun exam when you turn 50, 60, 70, etc.

That enough.

Swampwitch, Gainesville Fl
March 10, 2014 2:31pm

Wow. Hard to believe all this stuff. It's impossible to take the three days required to read every post here, but I did read quite a few of them. The thing that strikes me is that none of the "pro-detox" people seems to have any idea what they are promoting. What these "toxins" are or how what they propose will have any impact on them.

There was one guy who called himself a "holistic naturopath" or something like that who at least tried to identify some toxins, like plastics and pesticides and a few other things, but then when he described his "treatment," it was essentially "eat healthy." How is it that eating vegetables (which every real doctor on the planet recommends, so don't try to pretend that eating vegetables is somehow "alternative") is going to detoxify anyone? Of course, it's not. Provide nutrients, yes. Detoxify, whatever that means, no. Almost certainly, when Mr. Holistic gets a victim into his office he's pushing his own $500 special cleansing miracle.

Eat a healthy diet, get enough exercise, and let your body work. Nothing else is needed, or even makes any sense.

Patrick, Dallas, TX
March 10, 2014 7:32pm

Detox is as necessary to humans as a tune up or oil change is to a car. Since we have created cities equivalent to "mine" or a "chemical plant" in most of the major cities because of pollution, the filters of the body are being overworked and under serviced. We age quicker because of this. Our brain and body function decreases, which brings poor performance to the bio-organic super machine we operate in. Our engine service light has been over looked and its time to
Clean, detoxify and reactive dead/dying cells.
http://www.realmdynamics.com/#_a_65

Chukwu, Sunrise/FL
March 22, 2014 5:46pm

Cripes our generation needs some sort of major calamity to befall us to bring our existences back into focus. This sort of insane belief was not nearly so prevalent in my grandparents day. This generation has never known real strife and as such crazy junk like New Age detox baloney gains a foothold because the people who buy into it have access to modern medicine, endless food, a functional economy and no one is regularly trying to kill them or conquer the globe. It's a generation of "Causists" - people looking for any crazy idea to latch onto because they have no real worries or strife to overcome so they invent things to be worried about. It's as fascinating as it is sad really. If these so called toxins existed and if these detoxes and rubber-clay shits pills were miracle cures the Surgeon General would be advocating putting it in the water. The reality is that their existence is nothing more than capitalism at work. As the great man Barnum said "There is a sucker born every minute."

Chris Smith, Los Angeles
April 11, 2014 3:49pm

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