The Bible Code: Enigmas for Dummies

Do messages hidden within the Bible really predict the future?

by Brian Dunning

Filed under Religion

Skeptoid #48
June 5, 2007
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Also available in Russian

Today we're going to load some cheap software onto our laptop and decode that silliest of modern pop phenomena, the Bible Code.

In 1994, an American journalist named Michael Drosnin visited Israel and told a poet friend, Chaim Guri, that he had a letter for prime minister Yitzhak Rabin. In his letter, Drosnin wrote that according to an obscure code embedded within the Torah, the Hebrew version of the first five books of the Old Testament, Rabin would be assassinated. Guri passed the letter along to Rabin, but alas, no heed was taken, and Rabin was in fact assassinated — a year later.

Convinced that his prediction must have been divinely inspired, Drosnin wrote a book called The Bible Code in which he detailed his coding methodology. It was based on the work of Israeli-Latvian mathematician Eliyahu Rips, who had based his work in turn upon that of school teacher Avraham Oren. Others throughout history had dabbled in similar pattern finding, including Isaac Newton. Drosnin's book was a major success, and is about to be followed by its second sequel.

The codes in The Bible Code are what's called Equidistant Letter Spacing, or ELS. A very simple example of this is the word troops. Take every other letter, and you'll get the word top. The word top is said to be encoded within the word troops as an ELS with a "skip" of 2. That's all there is to it. Now imagine a sentence written out in a grid, without spaces or punctuation, like a giant crossword puzzle with no black squares. A word encoded in this manner will appear in a line, vertically, diagonally, or horizontally, and it can even skip squares. It will often be at an angle something like a knight's move, like 4 squares up and 1 square to the left. With a large enough block of text, it's possible to find just about any word. Add a computer to the mix to do brute force crunching of all the possibilities, and you'll be surprised at how many words crop up. Short words are everywhere. Each time you add a letter to make your target word longer, the number of hits drops dramatically. It's rare to find a word of 7 or more letters.

Now that you know how to find words encoded within a text, what about sentences? Followers of the Bible Code methodology take a pretty liberal approach to this. It is not necessary to find the entire sentence as one long ELS string; that's impossible. All you have to do is find words that appear on the grid near each other, usually near enough to all be viewed on the same grid (but you can make your grid as large as you prefer). Words can go in different directions with different skips. Picture a word search puzzle with a whole bunch of words circled in it, and this is how sentences are found using the Bible Code methodology. There are no rules governing this process, it's completely up to the individual to decide which words to search for within a text, and then place them in the desired order. There are always many other extra words, especially shorter words, scattered through a given grid, so the researcher has plenty of words to choose from to form the desired sentence.

That's how the Bible Code works. If it seems pretty weak and loose, well, you're right, it is. It seemed that way to me, too, so I looked around and purchased a commercial software program that performs these searches. It's called CodeFinder and it cost around $70. There are several available and this was one that looked decent. CodeFinder came with a number of source texts, including the New and Old Testaments, and also War and Peace. Really any long text will do, including completely random text. I generated a large file of random text and did some searches on that as well. First I found my name, which is liberally scattered throughout all texts; maybe I'm holy. CodeFinder works in such a way as to store the locations of each word found to facilitate the building of sentences. If you're patient enough, and willing to try all sorts of alternate wordings, and stick with as many short words as possible, you can find just about any sentence you want in any text. Don't get me wrong, it's not quick and easy, you will have to spend significant time building a decent sentence. I played with it long enough to find "I will die on Friday" and "Brian is a cool guy" in the Bible, in War and Peace, and in my own random text file. That was enough for me.

The Bible Code proponents have another secret weapon up their sleeve, and that's the Hebrew language. CodeFinder also comes with a copy of the Old Testament in Hebrew. Remember the Indiana Jones movie where he almost steps through the wrong floor tile because of an ambiguity about the spelling of Jehovah? Hebrew has different forms and different spellings of the same word, in some cases a number of different spellings. When Drosnin wrote The Bible Code, he took full advantage of these ambiguities to find the maximum number of matches for a given word in constructing his sentences. He has been widely criticized for this. If he'd have stuck to one form of Hebrew or another, many of Drosnin's sentences would be considered misspelled. Even so, to find the name Yitzhak Rabin in Hebrew, he had to use a skip value of 4,772 characters. That covers a massive block of text in which it's possible to find just about any other word.

So, clearly, it is possible to find almost anything you want in almost any text using the ELS method. The nature of entropy means that there will be accidental words and sentences everywhere. When Bible Code proponents find a sentence, how do they know that this sentence was placed there deliberately by some higher power, and was not just another accidental hit? Proving this distinction is really the key to proving that there's any substance to Bible Code claims, and so far, nobody has put forward any reasonable suggestion of what form such proof might take.

Bible Code proponents often point out that Eliyahu Rips co-authored an article about his discovery which was published in a legitimate peer-reviewed mathematical journal, Statistical Science, in 1994. What they fail to point out is that this publication was in no way an endorsement of Bible Codes as predictors of future events, let alone divine inspiration. Statistical Science is a mathematics journal, it has nothing to do with religion or predictions, and it does not publish research. The ELS article was published simply as a mathematically challenging word puzzle, a definition under which Bible Code style ELS findings are perfectly legitimate.

But Drosnin says that it's more than that. Much more. Astronomically more. At least, astronomic in terms of its origins. In his first sequel book, The Bible Code II, Drosnin states that the Bible was written by — wait for it — aliens. The same aliens, in fact, who brought DNA to Earth and caused life to first develop here. Drosnin believes that the aliens left the key to decoding the Bible Code inside a steel obelisk buried near the Dead Sea, and Drosnin even claims to have gone searching for it himself. Why an elaborately buried key is necessary is unclear, since cheap $70 software off the Internet decodes it just fine.

So what about Drosnin's famous prediction of Yitzhak Rabin's assassination? It does sound impressive, but consider three points. First, it was only one of innumerable predictions that Drosnin made, the rest of which turned out to be nonsense — such as the nuclear destruction of civilization in both 2000 and 2006, and the devastation of Los Angeles by a meteor in 2006. This is the typical tool of the celebrity psychic: Remembering only the hits and ignoring the misses.

Second, at the time that Drosnin made the Rabin prediction, it was a practical certainty that Rabin was going to be assassinated. The hardcore right-wing Jews were as angry with Rabin as were the Palestinians he was trying to make peace with. Pundits said at the time that it was only a question of which anti-peace group was going to get him first. Psychics all over the world predicted his assassination, and Drosnin was lucky enough to be the one who was invited onto the Oprah Winfrey show, even though his prediction provided no useful information about the date or place of the assassination. This PR is the reason that Drosnin is the one whose book became popular, and not some other psychic.

Tip Skeptoid $2/mo $5/mo $10/mo One time

Third and finally, the actual prediction that Drosnin found contained simply the name "Yitzhak Rabin" and a Hebrew word that can mean "assassinate". Shortened, it can also mean "assassin". In a block of text that massive, innumerable shorter words are found, so Drosnin chose "will". Drosnin selected a few words from his palette and arranged them into "assassin will assassinate Yitzhak Rabin", using the word for assassin twice. Note that it could also be arranged into "assassin Rabin will assassinate Yitzhak" or any of numerous other names also found within the block. In short, it's very hard for a critical thinker who understands the ELS coding to conclude that Drosnin found a definitive prediction that Rabin would be killed. Either deliberately or through gross negligence, Drosnin put this foolishness forward as a prediction, and it remains the strongest evidence in favor of the Bible Code.

Brian Dunning

© 2007 Skeptoid Media Copyright information

References & Further Reading

Brant, D. "Fun with the Bible Code.", 30 Apr. 2006. Web. 5 Jun. 2007. <>

Jackson, A. "The Bible Code." Notices of the American Mathematical Society. 1 Sep. 1997, Volume 44, Number 8: 935-939.

McKay, B., Bar-Natan, D., Bar-Hillel, M., Kalai, G. "Solving the Bible Code Puzzle." Statistical Science. 1 May 1999, Volume 14, Number 2: 150-173.

Singh, S. The Code Book: Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography. New York: Anchor Books, 2000. 373.

Thomas, D. "Hidden Messages and The Bible Code." Skeptical Inquirer. 1 Nov. 1997, Volume 21, Number 6.

Witztum, D., Rips, E., Rosenberg, Y. "Equidistant Letter Sequences in the Book of Genesis." Statistical Science. 1 Aug. 1994, Volume 9, Number 3: 429-438.

Reference this article:
Dunning, B. "The Bible Code: Enigmas for Dummies." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, 5 Jun 2007. Web. 4 Oct 2015. <>


10 most recent comments | Show all 123 comments

A simple Bible Code Introduction page has been added. An obvious code pattern present within the Bible is clearly exposed. See

Sean, Canada
March 21, 2012 1:48pm

We had a few codes in our city phone books..much more coherent than any bible code..

I have always wondered why the coded data had to be interpreted..

I am still suspicious after 25 years (i think since the first travesty published in Stat Anal) That its called the "bible Code"..

But then its easy to sucker those who are believers and those who have never read the bible in any of its forms. That makes about 99% of the planet.

Thanks for the useless lookey see link..I'll treat it with the normal disdain..

I can honestly say, four centuries ago a credible witch sniffer persuavant would have burned the contributors before the publication..After the drowning, whipping and interrogation of course..(order specific!)

Where have all the good times gone? Long, long time ago?

You just never see persistence today like witch sniffers of times gone..

Mud, Sin City, NSW, Oz
March 21, 2012 9:12pm

Sean your still here promoting your nonsense!

Brent, America
March 22, 2012 11:46pm

If you don't mind a little swearing, you could watch

to learn about the power of Bible Codes.

H. Reasoner, Guelph, ON
May 28, 2012 12:07pm

Not hard Reasoner.. a free lookup table based on the masoretic redact just has to be right..

Hip Hip hooray to... the people in 1050 and poo poo to the septuagint writers!

Why doesnt the septuagint score? well its a bit embarrasing using a redact written 1000 years earlier. Have we coughed up the differences between earlier texts? Why isnt the original heiroglyph or cuneiform used if the moneotheists are to be believed? Becuse it probably would make better sense.

Ive been onto this since the book was first heralded in the end times literature 20 years ago. You can win with anyone smart to write code. Those who think people who write code are special and god inspired become a bit dissapointed when they find out people like are are very common indeed..

or satan inspired...that I think is a compliment...someone as big, rough and tough as god singles me out for the ignorants..

Now back to scratching for reality!

Mud, Back in SinCity, Oz
June 3, 2012 12:06am

Sometimes I should be a bit less rhetorical.

Why should the bible code work for a late translation/redact an not for earlier texts?

The earlier texts havent been tested.

This makes the "moby dick" charge so more credible.

I have found from both volumes and the original paper that a lookup table of text will always produce a "reliable" literary result.

I am perterbed that the review panel for the original paper did not test the code against other works. In this case, a copy of an extant of say "Judges" or "kings" or even "Chronilces" would have provided the same results.

What say we pass the same filter over "American Psycho". I assure you, the results would have been similarly underwhelming.

When you have a variable parametered filter setting variable arrays to seek out current terms, Brian Dunnings skeptoid has four tyrannosaurs and a tightly heeled jib..

Gotta stop using "friends" episode scripts as search sources!

mud, Forbidden state, Oz
June 25, 2012 7:06am

"Sean your still here promoting your nonsense! " says Brent.

No....(You're) still promoting your nonsense.

I just expose truths. Truths of which those who choose to be blind, can not see.

Sean, Ontario Canada
August 19, 2012 12:53pm

Yehaa Sean....the Braille edition makes so much more sense...

Yeah I did punch cards!

Mud, At virtually missing point, NSW, OZ,
September 5, 2012 2:47am

I can interpet the bible in many ways.

For example, the King James version proves to me that Moses abused his wife.

It says right in the Book of Exodus:
"And Moses took his wife and set her upon her ass."

Sounds to me like he busted her on the snoot and knocked her down backwards.

It says something similar about his sons in the next passage.

I've been trying to find codes in the Yellow Pages, obviously published by the Reptoids and the New World Order, to figure out just what their agenda is.

Ron, Calgary Alberta Canada
November 22, 2013 4:22pm

Thanks for explaining this so beautifully. Very helpful. I'm not surprised that 'Brian is a cool guy'' is encoded in the Bible.

guidocity, Canberra
December 4, 2014 9:18pm

Make a comment about this episode of Skeptoid (please try to keep it brief & to the point).

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