Superhuman Strength during a Crisis

Popular stories tell of mothers lifting cars off their children. Can the human body really do such feats?

Filed under Health, Urban Legends

Skeptoid #255
April 26, 2011
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Today we're going to recount heroic tales of superhuman feats of strength, when in the face of disaster, some people are said to have summoned up incredible physical power to lift a car off of an accident victim, move giant rocks, or like Big John of song, single-handedly hold up a collapsing beam to let the other miners escape. Are such stories true? There are many anecdotes supporting the idea, but we're going to take a fact-based look at whether or not it truly is possible for an adrenalin-charged person to temporarily gain massive strength.

In proper terminology, such a temporary boost of physical power would be called hysterical strength. The stories are almost always in the form of one person lifting a car off of another. In one case in Colorado in 1995, a police officer arrived at a single-car accident where a Chevy Chevette ended up on top of a baby girl and sank into the mud. The officer lifted the car and the mother pulled the girl out. In 2009, a man in Kansas lifted a Mercury sedan off of a six-year-old girl who had been trapped underneath when it backed out on top of her. In 1960, a Florida mom lifted a Chevy Impala so that a neighbor could pull out her son, who had become trapped when he was working on the car and his jack collapsed. There's even the case where the MD 500D helicopter from Magnum, P.I. crashed in 1988, pinning the pilot under shallow water; and his burly friend (nicknamed Tiny) ran over and lifted the one-ton helicopter enough for the pilot to be pulled out. And, of course, the list goes on, and on, and on.

In each of these cases, some aspect of leverage or buoyancy probably played some role in reducing the magnitude of the feat to something more believable. And even lifting many cars by several inches still leaves most of its weight supported by the suspension springs. But our purpose today is not to "debunk" any of the specific stories. The majority of them are anecdotal, and interestingly not repeatable; in many cases, the person who summoned the superstrength later tried it again only to find that they couldn't do it. Basically, what we have is a respectably large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests that in times of crisis, danger, or fear, some people have the ability to temporarily exercise superhuman strength.

The typical explanation given centers on adrenalin. Adrenalin, also called epinephrine, figures prominently in what's popularly called the "fight or flight" response. Sudden stress, such as an impending fight or other dangerous situation, triggers the sympathetic nervous system to induce the fight or flight response, sometimes called hyperarousal or the acute stress response. It's a way that your body readies itself to deal with physical harm, very much like calling "Battle stations!" on a warship. The adrenal gland releases adrenalin into your bloodstream, and as it spreads throughout your body, it does different things to different types of tissue. Your airways relax to maximize breathing capacity, and metabolism increases. Your muscles go into glycolysis, which produces energy-rich molecules fueling them for extraordinary action. While blood flow to the muscles is increased, blood flow to vulnerable extremities is decreased. Dopamine is produced in the brain as a natural pain killer. Peripheral vision turns into tunnel vision to minimize distractions. Reflexes and reaction times improve. Non-critical functions like digestion and sexual function slow or even stop.

All of this is physiological fact. But how much does it really do for you? Is it the marginal improvement in ability that it would seem to be, or can it really supersize your strength by a huge factor of three, five, or ten? Fortunately, this has been studied.

Let's look at one such case, when a Camaro ran over a bicyclist in Arizona in 2006. The superhero was Tom Boyle, who lifted one side of the more than 3,000 pound car so that the wheels were off the ground. What's interesting in this case is that Tom Boyle is a powerlifter. He's a huge guy, and he knew exactly how much he could dead-lift: 700 pounds. The world record at the time was 1,008 pounds. Neither number would be enough to get two of the Camaro's wheels off the ground.

As detailed in Jeff Wise's book Extreme Fear, the puzzle of weightlifters such as Tom Boyle has been at least partially solved by Vladimir Zatsiorsky, a biomechanics specialist at Penn State, who has published his results in his book Science and Practice of Strength Training. Zatsiorsky gives three numbers to describe an athlete's lifting potential. The highest is your absolute strength, which is the theoretical maximum that your muscle fibers, tendons, and bones can take. This number can never be exceeded, and realistically, can never be quite reached. The lowest is your maximal strength, which is the maximum you could lift using conscious effort, in a gym or other controlled environment. According to Zatsiorsky's research, the maximal strength of most ordinary people is just about 2/3 of their absolute strength. This means that for a person who can lift 200 pounds, 300 pounds is their frame's theoretical maximum. Tissues would fail, preventing that person from lifting any more, no matter what fight or flight response came into play.

However, for trained weightlifters who practice lifting their maximum every day, this number is higher, about 80%. Taking Tom Boyle's 700 pound maximum lift as an example, we calculate that 875 pounds is the maximum that his body could have taken before structural failure.

But here is where Zatsiorsky found that things get interesting. Somewhere in between the maximal strength and the absolute strength is a middle ground that appears when the body goes into competitive mode. The fight or flight response also appears when faced with the pressure of competing. Some research has even found that simply shouting encouragement toward competitors can even physically improve performance. Zatsiorsky has measured some athletes reaching as high as 92% of their body's absolute strength during the most intense competitions. This explains why world records are often set at the Olympics; there is no venue that places more pressure on athletes.

If Tom Boyle had this much pressure on him, and it's more than likely that a young man's imminent death is more stressful than the possibility of winning a contest, he could have dead-lifted perhaps 800 pounds. It's still not enough to get two of the car's wheels off the ground. No matter what inspiration, mental mode, or adrenalin rush came over him, lifting much more than that would have resulted in structural failure, and the car would have fallen and crushed the young cyclist.

Sadly for the anecdote, we must conclude that the story is not accurate as reported. Perhaps both wheels didn't actually leave the ground and the suspension was doing some of the work. Perhaps Boyle lifted from the lighter back end of the car and not the heavier side. Perhaps the car was inclined in such a way that the leverage angle was more favorable. Whenever these rare events happen to be captured on film, some such advantage always comes into play. When Tiny was said to have "lifted the helicopter", it's pretty clear that he merely rocked the bulbous craft as it was lying on its side against the sloped and uneven riverbank.

So when we shine the light of science upon the notion that a dangerous situation can breed superhuman strength, we find that it's only partly true. The fight or flight response can indeed help you exceed your normal capabilities, but only by some limited increment; not enough to justify the common perception of these extraordinary stories.

$2/mo $5/mo $10/mo One time

But fight or flight is not the only possible booster available. There are other similar stories that have nothing to do with lifting a car off an accident victim. One such example is that of criminals fleeing police, fighting people off with apparent invincibility, shrugging off attacks and making an escape. The illegal drug PCP is sometimes offered as an explanation, and it can indeed be a good one. Among PCP's many psychological effects are a feeling of great strength and power; and among its physical effects is the blocking of pain. Put these two together, and an idiot on PCP can do just about anything. He won't actually have any greater strength, but he'll think he does; and as a result, such clowns often end up with a myriad of self-inflicted injuries, sometimes even killing themselves.

Such drugs have also been suggested to explain groups such as the Norse berserkers, a subset of Viking shock troops who fought like enraged wild animals, impervious to pain, and contemptuous of injury. Some researchers have suggested that berserkers may have taken hallucinogenic mushrooms before going into battle, as did Zulu warriors. Another theory states that they may have simply gotten really drunk, but this likely would have resulted in poorer performance in battle. It's also possible that berserkers simply worked themselves up into a frenzy, and combined with the fight or flight response to the impending battle, did indeed gain heightened physical ability.

Anecdotal evidence has suggested that cases of electric shock have caused people to launch themselves across the room involuntarily, presumably because the electricity fires the muscles. If true, it would support the notion that the musculoskeletal structure is indeed capable of feats that exceed even Zatsiorsky's absolute strength measurements. But this is not only unproven (and obviously untested), it is an incomplete theory. If such a thing has happened, exhibiting strength that has in fact exceeded the absolute strength, there is no evidence that it was done without crippling injury to the muscles or tendons.

The ability to acquire superpowers, even if only temporarily, is such a compelling possibility that most of us really want these stories to be true. And many of them probably are true to some degree, just exaggerated, misreported, or even misinterpreted by those who were there; and so, sadly, they're not yet the confirmation of superpowers that we're hoping for. It's a really intriguing field of research, and an attractive goal. But it's a goal we'll only reach if we go beyond the popularly reported versions of the stories and take the trouble to learn what's really going on.

Follow me on Twitter @BrianDunning.

Brian Dunning

© 2011 Skeptoid Media, Inc. Copyright information

References & Further Reading

Campenella, B., Mattacola, C., Kimura, I. "Effect of visual feedback and verbal encouragement on concentric quadriceps and hamstrings peak torque of males and females." Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 1 Jan. 2000, Volume 8: 1-6.

Fabing, H. "On Going Berserk: A Neurochemical Inquiry." Scientific Monthly. 1 Nov. 1956, Volume 83: 232.

Foote, P., Wilson, D. The Viking Achievement: The Society and Culture of Early Medieval Scandinavia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1970. 285.

Friedman, H., Silver, R. Foundations of Health Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Walker, A. "The Strength of Great Apes and the Speed of Humans." Current Anthropology. 1 Apr. 2009, Volume 50, Number 2: 229-234.

Wise, J. Extreme Fear: The Science of Your Mind in Danger. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Zatsiorsky, V., Kraemer, W. Science and Practice of Strength Training. Champagne: Human Kinetics, 2006.

Reference this article:
Dunning, B. "Superhuman Strength during a Crisis." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, Inc., 26 Apr 2011. Web. 23 Apr 2014. <http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4255>

Discuss!

10 most recent comments | Show all 46 comments

I lifted the car many times.I was born in Serbia my mother is strong women and my father god bless his soul was the strongest man I ewer know.my father had big chop shop and I start helping and working there very young. And we did almost everything with hands and pure strength. For me was normal to lift cars engine and all sort of heavy things.but one thing you forget that those super moms and others and me did not lift the car! We only lift one part of it.So when you say she lifted 3500 ponds car that is not correct because that is the total weight of the car.so there is nothing super human in that story. little bit of natural strength mixed with fear and all sort of powers he gives and the fact that she lifted just one part of the ground that is probably true story. Maybe her son was trapped under the back well not under the heavy one where the engine is. I'm not good at mats but let put it this way: the car weight is 3500,let's say that front of the car have 2500 and back 1000,and she lifted only one part of that 1000 that's maybe about 350-500 pound. Sorry for my english.

Boris, Malaga
May 23, 2013 2:32pm

In the article it mentions “absolute strength”, and that injury would result if a person exceeded that. Think: what if the situation is such that the person’s response overrides the minds natural inclination to limit exertion to less than the level that will cause injury? What will be damaged first, and how fast, and how long will the persons physical structure be able hold that strain?

Assume in the incident described that the “absolute strength” of Tom would have allowed him to dead lift 875 lbs (note that Vladimir’s computations would put it between 840 lbs and 931 lbs). Assume that, correcting for leverage & the suspension, he would have had to dead lift 1000 lbs to lift the end of the car. Given that he would injure himself in the process, could he have? Would the injuries be instantly disabling (torn muscles and ligaments, broken bones) or less critical (crushed cartilage, minor muscle tears) that could be sustained for the 30 seconds or so it took, though at great long term cost?

This is of course assuming that Vladimirs research and conclusions are correct. Not being in that field I can’t begin to determine that. However, I will point out that many supposedly proven conclusions have been determined to be incorrect after further testing. The famous conclusion that a bumblebee shouldn’t be capable of flight is an example. I agree there must be a hard physical limit on the amount of weight a given structure can bear (whether a building or a body) but it may turn out that 20 – 33% more than a person normally lifts is too conservative. How much does the debate change if it turns out that the physical limit is 50% more? Or 100% more? (In which case Tom could theoretically bear between 1050 l

Jeff, Roseville, MI
June 27, 2013 3:31pm

para one...thats called human strength..

para 2.. if people under stress can lift heavier weight, then its called "human strength"

para 3.. the bumble bee is a poor analogy referring to the inadequacy of people trying to describe it.

The upshot is, if humans can do something its not called superhuman.

I'd call a flat dash of 9 seconds over 100 metres after years of talent recognition, training, dietary and equipment management a super human trait.

But it is human..

Why lions and ants dont do superpantherine or superhymenine under stress is clearly an indication of observation bias.

No that doesn't cut any mustard at all does it?

Magnanamous Dinoflagellate, sin city, Oz
July 04, 2013 11:24pm

Jesus.

Well, first of all, you'd need to calculate the amount of weight you're moving when you lift a car off two wheels. It's not half the weight of the car.

Secondly, lifting a car and deadlifting are not directly comparable movements. In lifts in general and deadlifting in particular, shifting the range of motion can cause you to be able to lift much more weight than in the greater range of motion.

Which is why people are able to do hip and thigh lifts (essentially a very short range deadlift) with thousands of pounds.

Third, the suspension is also relevant, because it starts the car in motion and changes the strength curve. Which is relevant, because the closer you are to fully upright, the stronger your deadlift becomes.

So basically, what's evident here is lack of skepticism about your own knowledge and the limits it has.

Justin Jordan, Bedford/Pa
July 21, 2013 12:44pm

Justin Jordan , I agree with you , except in that the weight lifted is indeed half the car weight when the car is still on the ground (moment law of equilibrium assuming that the gravity center of the car is located in the middle of the car) . It becomes easier as lockout is reached , but since the ROM is so small the variation is very slight.

Ali Jouahri, Rabat
July 21, 2013 11:48pm

Something strange happened to me today. I'm in 9th grade. I'm 5 foot 4. I play basketball and I cant dunk. I cant touch the rim.

But today when me and my friend were playing I jumped up to catch his rebound. When I jumped up I jumped WAYYYYYY higher than normal. I jumped up and my forearms slapped the backboard and left sweat marks when they skidded down.

I could have dunked easily. I was like what in the world just happened?? And my friend saw it and was like holy crap.

I tried to jump that high again and couldn't.

It was like a one time thing and it came out of nowhere for no specific reason.

Thats why I looked up this up on google and it brought me here.

I wasntn in some scary situation... we were just playing basketball.

Brad, Houston, TX
August 11, 2013 7:27pm

Try taking on a little old demented lady.
The human body is able to do greater things than our feeble minds acknowledge that we can do. That is why in a time of crises we can achieve feats that we could not otherwise achieve.
I have often lifted cars , not in the air above my head, just moved them over a little to confuse the owner (miss spent youth) Its not that hard.

Bubba, OZ
November 17, 2013 2:37pm

"Skeptoid"? I think a more suitable name would be "Know-it-all Times" or "Arrogance Weekly". I've tried following these articles, but I've come to the conclusion that you guys (the writers/opinion spewers) really do think you have an answer for everything. You sit there and shake your head, look down your nose, and wave off everything except your own views. I was looking for objectivity, but all I found was the same amount of rhetoric and conjecture as those you "fight" against. Consider me a new Skeptoid-skeptic.

Dave M., Courtenay
January 30, 2014 4:37pm

Justin Jordan's right.

Deadlifting 700 pounds is not like inching the side of a car up enough for someone underneath to be pulled out.

For a start, Tom Boyle's maximum deadlift is from approx. a foot above floor level to full straightening up with the bar across the upper thighs, an approx. bar travel distance of 2.5 feet, depending on how tall he is.

In that range of movement, there is a small distance where much more than 700 pounds could have been lifted, even if it was only a few inches.
That is in fact at near full upright position, as Justin says.

As an example, my top deadlift was 450 pounds in the gym at a bodyweight of 150 lb (at the time,) but on a dynometer I could turn the clock to 650 lbs, because I was pulling at near full stretch.

Lifting at the rear wheel-well of a Mk1 Zepher, or a Vauxhall Velox (both British cars) with my back to the car, I could haul it up enough for someone to change a wheel.

And I don't consider myself particularly strong, nor did I in those days. One of my friends could pick up the whole rear of his Velox enough to bounce it out onto the road when he was blocked in by someone parking too close behind, and he wasn't even a lifter.

So you're right in one sense Brian. Neither 700 or 1008 would be enough to lift one side of the Camaro, but they refer to full-range deadlifts.

Tom would have been well able to lift way beyond that in a short-range lift, and I am skeptical of the 875lb structural failure figure assigned to him.

Macky, Auckland
February 19, 2014 12:56am

And in general, from what I've seen of weightlifters in my times in the gym, they don't try lifting their maximum every day, because it's too hard on the body and nervous system.

Especially powerlifters who practise deadlifting as one of their three competitive lifts.
Deadlifting requires so much recovery after a session that many powerlifters only practice it once a week.

Regarding the 875lb structural failure figure assigned to Tom Boyle, I am skeptical of such an estimation, both from my own experiences, and from watching a guy in the gym who had a modest deadlift for his size (about 500lbs) but performed a quarter squat with 1000lbs on his shoulders.

Obviously, performing a squat where the load is taken off a rack already at near shoulder height, is not the same as straightening up, lifting a weight off the floor.
But the point I make here is that although the guy could only deadlift half his quarter-squat weight ( 500lbs is still a very respectable deadlift! ), his spine, shoulders, hips, and legs supported the 1000lbs without collapsing, and he was also not in competition (stress) when he tried it.

Not taking anything away from Zatsiorsky's research, but I would regard his figures as what could be expected in a general way, with potential for many exceptions, given the nature of the emergency, and the limited distance compared to a full deadlift, that a car would have to be lifted in order to drag someone out from underneath it, especially at near-full stretch.

Macky, Auckland
March 07, 2014 11:38pm

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