The Brown Mountain Lights

A ghost light in North Carolina has people scratching their heads. What's the explanation?

by Brian Dunning

Filed under Aliens & UFOs, General Science, Natural History, Urban Legends

Skeptoid #226
October 5, 2010
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Come with us now to the Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina, about 110 kilometers northwest of Charlotte. Within the Pisgah National Forest are rocky gorges, streams, and green everywhere you look. Hikers and backpackers abound. Some of the lucky night time visitors — or perhaps the unlucky, depending on your perspective — may get more than they bargain for. For the region is home to one of the world's infamous ghost lights, the Brown Mountain Lights.

We've covered "ghost lights" on Skeptoid before; specifically the Marfa Lights in Texas and the Min Min Light in Australia. In both cases, those lights were conclusively found to be superior mirages of actual lights below the horizon. The terrain in those places are similar; both are deeply cleft with gulleys which trap hot air from the day which is then overlaid with cold night air, forming perfect conditions to reflect light down from over the horizon. When the weather's within a certain range, the lights appear; and at both locations, researchers have reliably and repeatably correlated appearance of the lights with control lights placed below the horizon. There are many such lights around the world.

At first glance, the Brown Mountain Lights have a lot of the same characteristics, and our first reaction might well be to classify it along with the others. But upon closer inspection, we have to say "Not so fast." For it seems that there are two distinct and very different manifestations of the Brown Mountain Lights.

To understand this, let's take a look at Brown Mountain itself. The main thing you'll notice is that it's hardly a mountain at all. It's in a region of foothills of the Appalachians, cleft by canyons and streams. The highest elevations in the area are hardly more than 850 meters, and one hill is hardly distinct from another. Brown Mountain is one such ridge. If it wasn't already named, it would scarcely occur to you to name it.

Moreover, Brown Mountain itself seems to have little direct relevance to the Lights. There are three most-often cited vantage points for viewing the Lights. The most popular is called Wiseman's View, about 13 kilometers west of Brown Mountain. Another is the Lost Cove Overlook, about 16 kilometers northwest of the mountain. Between the two is a Forest Service overlook about 8 kilometers away. From each of these vantage points, you look toward Brown Mountain, and it's hardly more than a smokey-colored smudge on the horizon. If you're lucky, somewhere in that intervening distance, you'll see the Lights. Brown Mountain itself is not the place to go to see them, nor does it appear to be the place where the Lights appear.

This brings us to what the lights look like and how they appear. To learn this, we'll go to Wiseman's View. Highway 105 runs along a ridge, quite a bit higher in elevation than Brown Mountain, and there's a scenic viewpoint turnoff with a parking lot. The lot overlooks the rocky Linville Gorge. Continue on foot down a paved path to a precarious overlook hanging over the gorge. Looking east across the gorge there's a dip in the opposite side, and through that dip you can see the far away ridge of Brown Mountain, and beyond that, the distant city lights of Winston-Salem. Historically, the lights were described as is printed on this United States Forest Service sign:

The long, even-crested mtn. in the distance is Brown Mtn. From early times people have observed weird, wavering lights rise above this mtn., then dwindle and fade away.

If you tried to observe a hovering light above Brown Mountain from Wiseman's View, it would be lost in the city lights. Modern reports of the lights from Wiseman's View are, as mentioned earlier, a very different manifestation. People point their video cameras instead directly at the face of the hills across the gorge, looking not into the sky above the ridge, but straight at the hills. They report flickering lights under the trees, like people waving flashlights around. What's over there?

The right side of that dip looking across Linville Gorge is Table Rock, the most popular rock climbing destination in North Carolina. It's a dramatic rocky outcrop atop the hill across from Wiseman's View. Table Rock has its own parking lot only a couple hundred meters away, so it's not necessary for climbers to camp out on the slopes with their lanterns and flashlights. Nevertheless, it is approximately along the prominent hiking trails around Table Rock where the appearance of lights seem to be reported from Wiseman's View.

One explanation that's been offered, but not well received, is that these lights appearing on the face of the hills are reflections off of illegal moonshine stills, of the moon or other lights, or even the fires from the stills themselves. This is something that could be easily verified, but never has been. In any case, around the slopes of the state's most popular rock climbing destination, in plain view of the most famous overlook in the state, would not be a very clever hiding place for the shrewd distiller.

This type of light — a flicker directly visible on the hillside, as opposed to a probable refraction apparently hovering above the ridge — also contradicts local legend about the Lights' origin. According to modern locals, the Cherokee natives of the region believed 800 years ago that bereaved wives wandered the skies above the hills with lanterns, looking for the souls of their brave warrior husbands killed in battle. I say "supposedly" because I was unable to find any reference to such a belief outside of publications about the Brown Mountain Lights. That doesn't mean the Cherokee did not actually have such a legend; it only means I couldn't find it. I don't, however, recall the ancient Cherokee having lantern technology. Perhaps they meant torches, I don't know. But the retellings of this legend that I did find are unanimous in that the Brown Mountain Lights are specifically the type that appear in the sky above ridges, not flickering through the trees on the face of the hill.

This is also supported by one of the early "scientific" explanations of the Brown Mountain Lights. In 1771, the most prolific cartographer in Colonial America was the Dutchman John William Gerard de Brahm. He was appointed Surveyor General by the British and traveled throughout the Colonies constructing fortifications and bridges. He was also something of an amateur mystic. While in the southern United States, de Brahm is said to have published the following hypothesis (more on this in a moment):

"The mountains emit nitrous vapors which are borne by the wind and when laden winds meet each other the niter inflames, sulphurates and deteriorates."

This is essentially the same "swamp gas" explanation used today to answer everything from ghost lights to UFOs, and which we looked at in detail in the episode on the Naga Fireballs in Thailand. As a serious theory, it falls short of credible. Swamp gas never been found to spontaneously ignite in nature, as it would require a highly improbably mixture of gases in critical proportions. When these conditions have been created artificially in the lab, the gas burns bright bluish-green with a sudden pop, producing black smoke. Under no conditions does it burn slowly, or hover, or in any way resemble the reports of the Brown Mountain Lights. Although it sounds scientific and convincing, the swamp gas hypothesis is almost certainly not the explanation.

By studying the oldest literature, we find that the Lights have been at least partially explained. Often cited as one of the earliest print references to the Brown Mountain Lights is a 1913 article from the Charlotte Observer entitled "No Explanation" that described how the light appears regularly at 9:30 or 10pm nearly every night. In 1922, the US Geological Survey produced a special report based on an exhaustive investigation of the Lights, and found that since 1909 a regularly scheduled locomotive on the plains beyond had been casting its headlight in precisely that direction every night at that same time. In fact it was due at a stop along there at 9:53pm every night. The locomotive's headlight was visible in a direct line of sight from a hill six miles beyond Brown Mountain, and certainly would have been from other locations as well. If it was not the source of the light described in the 1913 article, it would have been in direct competition with it; but witnesses reported one light, not two. Moreover, back in 1909 the USGS had actually made an earlier report in response to sightings of the Brown Mountain Light, and the investigator found that the sightings were all of this same train.

One member of the 1922 USGS team, a Mr. H. C. Martin, initially found geographic conditions in the region to be completely unsuitable to produce superior mirages of the sort that could refract distant lights from over the horizon and make them appear to hover in the air. But upon further investigation, he found that such refraction was taking place, nearly every night, above the basin now occupied by Lake James, and around which were numerous settlements with plenty of electric nights. From all observing stations, these lights were routinely seen above the horizon. The report noted:

"As the basin and its atmospheric conditions antedate the earliest settlement of the region, it is possible that even among the first settlers some favorably situated light may have attracted attention by seeming to flare and then diminish or go out."

This fits well with modern reports from Wiseman's View and the other overlooks that if you move up or down the mountainside, the lights vanish. Martin noted a narrow 3-4° angle in which such refracted lights would be visible.

The USGS also included historical research that found that it was not until 1910, when a Reverend C. E. Gregory moved into the area and began making reports, that the Lights became generally known. Even the belief that the Cherokee and Catawba natives had legends did not appear until about this time. Sightings that predate this period seem to all be apocryphal, with no actual print references known to exist. Even the often-cited 1771 report from de Brahm is suspect. It's always given out of context, and is, in fact, misquoted. De Brahm was not talking about any lights at all, he was giving his mystical and somewhat alchemy-centric opinions on how thunderstorms work and why the air is so clear in the Great Smoky Mountains. Here's what he actually said, and it was in his undated Report of the General Survey in the Southern District of North America:

"Although these Mountains transpire through their Tops sulphurueaous and arsenical Sublimations, yet they are too light, as to precipitate so near their Sublimitories, but are carried away by the Winds to distant Regions. In a heavy Atmosphere, the nitrous Vapours are swallowed up through the Spiraculs of the Mountains, and thus the Country is cleared from their Corrosion; when the Atmosphere is light, these nitrous Vapours rise up to the arsenical and sulphureous (subliming through the Expiraculs of the Mountains), and when they meet with each other in Contact, the Niter inflames, vulgurates and detonates, whence the frequent Thunders, in which a most votalized Spirit of Niter ascends to purify and inspire the upper Air, and a phlogiston Regeneratum (the metallic Seed) descends to impregnate the Bowels of the Earth; and as all these Mountains form so many warm Athanors which draw and absorb, especially in foggy Seasons, all corrosive Effluvia along with the heavy Air through the Registers (Spiracles) and thus cease not from that Perpetual Circulation of the Air, corroding Vapours are no sooner raised, than that they are immediately disposed of, consequently the Air in the Appalachian Mountains in extreamely pure and healthy."

Taken in context, it's clear that de Brahm's quote has nothing whatsoever to do with the Brown Mountain Lights. This leaves us with no documentary evidence that the Lights existed at all prior to the arrival of electric lights and people in the area in the early 1900's.

Tip Skeptoid $2/mo $5/mo $10/mo One time

So let's wrap up what we've learned about the two different manifestations of the Brown Mountain Lights. Regarding those that appear in the sky above a ridge, it's apparent that the 1922 USGS report solved it as described in the following conclusion. Today, nearly 90 years later, the lights are coming from different sources but this analysis probably still holds up:

"In summary it may be said that the Brown Mountain lights are clearly not of unusual nature or origin. About 47 percent of the lights that the writer was able to study instrumentally were due to automobile headlights, 33 percent to locomotive headlights, 10 percent to stationary lights, and 10 percent to brush fires."

As for the lights appearing on the faces of the hills, we find there are no historical references to such a thing, and only a few recent YouTube videos and modern claims reporting it, in this age of LED flashlights, lanterns, headlamps, and iPhone screens. So I'm confident calling this one unexplained, but also not especially interesting or surprising.

It is all too often that we eagerly accept wild and sensational phenomena, which causes us to shut out the real science behind what's going on. I find real wonder in mirage refractions, and I find great excitement in such perfect solutions as the correlation of the locomotive with the 1909 Lights reports. This wonder and excitement are lost to those who replace science with sensationalism.

Brian Dunning

© 2010 Skeptoid Media, Inc. Copyright information

References & Further Reading

Caton, D. "See the Lights." The Brown Mountain Lights. Appalachian State University, 15 Mar. 2005. Web. 30 Sep. 2010. <http://www.brownmountainlights.org/>

De Brahm, J. Report of the general survey in the Southern District of North America. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1971.

Editors. "No Explanation." Charlotte Observer. 24 Sep. 1913, Newspaper: 2.

Johnson, R. Hiking North Carolina: A Guide to Nearly 500 of North Carolina's Greatest Hiking Trails. New York: Globe Pequot, 2007. 149-150.

Mansfield, G. Origin of the Brown Mountain Light in North Carolina. Washington: United States Geological Survey, 1971.

Norman, M. Haunted Homeland: A Definitive Collection of North American Ghost Stories. New York: Macmillan, 2008. 308-310.

Sceurman, M., Moran, M. Weird U.S.: Your Travel Guide to America's Local Legends and Best Kept Secrets. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2009. 103.

Toomey, M. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Nashville: Tennessee Historical Society, 1998.

Reference this article:
Dunning, B. "The Brown Mountain Lights." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, Inc., 5 Oct 2010. Web. 23 Oct 2014. <http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4226>

Discuss!

10 most recent comments | Show all 47 comments

"As for the lights appearing on the faces of the hills, we find there are no historical references to such a thing, and only a few recent YouTube videos and modern claims reporting it"

You sound fairly well researched; however, ironically here's one Youtube video which precisely shows the lights on the faces of hills.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSJb3QuBlTg

John, North America
October 16, 2013 2:51pm

Hey Brian, interesting article though it saddens me to see you dismiss the lights having never seen them. I am a local who camps in the Gorge Wilderness 5-10 times a year. I've only ever seen one light, but I know others who have. It was June 29, 2013 at around 6PM. Me and some friends were hiking towards the "Chimneys" from the Table Rock Picnic Area. We were searching for a good place to camp, and had a lot of gear, so my wife and her friend who were hiking with me stopped for a break while I went on ahead. I hiked a bit beyond the Chimneys and decided to turn back when, looking down into the gorge I noticed a solitary orange light illuminated against the shadowed side of the gorge. At first I thought to myself, "That sure is a bright camp fire to not even be dark yet" and then it started moving. I thought, "Oh, well that sure is a bright flashlight!" At this point I realized it was not moving beneath the tree line but, in fact, over it. I watched as it hovered in a perfectly straight line across the gorge until it went behind an outcropping of rocks on my side of the gorge. I waited for about ten minutes, hoping to show my companions but it never revealed itself again. I had tried to call out to them while I was watching it but couldn't manage more than "Hey!". I was just too in awe at what I was seeing. So, take my account for what you will, but I know what I saw that day was not the result of anything man-made.

Jordan, Lenoir
October 25, 2013 6:27am

The lights on the side of the mountain indeed exist. I was at Wiseman's view after a thunderstorm from approx 9pm - 11pm. There were about 6-8 other people gathered there to catch a glimpse of the lights. These lights varied in nature. A couple were solid bright white lights that were fast moving (maybe 15-20 mph). They would move and stop, then flip around in quick circles before going out. These would appear at random across the face of the mtn. Another light was on top of table rock. This one seemed like a campfire that would ignite, go out, and ignite again - doing this multiple times. The previous night, on the Brown Mtn overlook, we saw a very different phenomenon which I've also seen described as the Brown mtn lights. These were the red balls of light that would rise above the mountain ridge, and dissipate almost like a firework but with no sound, and much slower. These would occur one after the other. 2 very strange sightings and we were very lucky to catch them back to back. I'm a very skeptical person, and still am not sure of what I saw, but I"m sure there is a scientific explanation. What I can tell you is, that these are not reflections, or refracting light from cars, or trains. Very interesting and I hope people stay interested so we can find out what this is!

Brian, Charlotte, NC
January 13, 2014 11:56am

Many years ago, We were camping at Daniel Boone Campground and decided to drive up to the overlook. It was a clear moonless night. There were quite a few people there besides us. There was a lot of ooing and aahing going on as we saw little flashes of light on and above the mountain. I think we all thought there must be some logical explanation. Several minutes after the flashes of light had died out, there was a sudden bright flash of light that lit up the people and vehicles around us, followed by a strong gust of wind. People were screaming and running to their vehicles to get away. The next day, a deputy sheriff came by the campground asking if anyone had been at the overlook the night before. He asked what we had seen and what we thought it was. He told us it was rare to see the lights and the bright flash and gust of wind was even more rare (making it seem like it had been reported before). I've never heard anything else about a flash and gust of wind. It happened, I don't know what it was and I try not to jump to conclusions. Maybe it was refracted light and the wind was just a coincidence. Maybe it was a helicopter rising up out of the gorge (like in Close Encounters). Maybe it was mass hysteria. I am curious, however, that I've found no other reference to this. I was there. I experienced this. I don't know what it was. Make your own conclusions. P.S. I've been to the same overlook many more times over the years and not seen a thing. Thank you for your time.

Sam, Shelby, NC
January 26, 2014 11:20am

I just watched the movie trailer Alien Abduction and was wondering how accurate the shots from the movie were with eyewitness accounts, because the scene where the bright object shoots up into the sky is a rather dramatized version of what I witness once. About 10 years ago I was on a group camping trip to Blue Lake, ON. A buddy of mine and I were taking a midnight swim in frigid waters when I noticed what I thought to be a star moving through the sky. I thought it was a satellite as we had already seen a couple streak through the sky that night. But I watched this bright object zip in every direction, including diagonally but always in a straight line. I watched this one light for at least half an hour, and we were trying to figure it out. We saw at least two more join it in different areas of the sky over the course of an hour or so. My best guess was that it was someone with a laser pointer somehow bouncing light off of the night sky, but the movement was far too clean and straight, and appeared to be very far away (like a satellite). This movement was NOT just above the horizon. It ranged from at least four hours (using the hand method) above the horizon to straight above us. The speed varied from extremely slow to extremely fast, too fast for a satellite or other obvious object. I personally don't believe in visitors from another planet but I'd still like to find out what they were. That movie trailer was the first time I've ever seen something come close to what we saw.

Keith, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
March 8, 2014 3:58pm

I know this may sound silly, but given how long these lights have been appearing and inciting curiosity, not to mention vivid imagination, did anyone bother to hop into a chopper and fly low over the area to have a closer look while this was happening? Taking pictures from a few miles away and posting them on youtube solves nothing.

Max, Honolulu
April 4, 2014 6:20pm

In late September, 1981, I was touring the country and was on the Blue Ridge Parkway. My friends grandfather told us about the BMLights and we decided to go see them. I don't remember which lookout we went to, it was probably a common one. It was around 5:00 PM, and we had no expectations at all, it was just we were there and "what the heck". After only a few minutes, lights began to appear on the face of the hill. The just appeared, then disappeared all across the face of the hill. From this view, there was no city lights in the distance, no roads visible, just wooded hillside. There was no real movement, just light on, then gone. It was fun and curious and we enjoyed it. I didn't make any conclusions of where they came from or what they were. I still don't. I know they were not headlights or train lights or flashlights or campfires or giant fireflies. It was still, quiet and the lights appeared randomly all across the face of the mountain, among the trees. Fun memory.

shannon, Washington
April 6, 2014 12:45pm

Selective debunking is not skepticism, at least as skepticism is practiced by scientists. We count all sources worthy of skepticism, including those produced by erstwhile experts producing government directed investigations. The USGS report neglects to mention that the lights appeared during a period following floods in 1916, that had washed out roads, railroad tracks and bridges, as well as the little electrical power provided to the area. As for lights appearing among the hill sides, these have been seen for centuries according to Cherokee oral history. It takes more than a bit of cultural insensitivity to deny peoples' history if it does not take a particular form. Still, that's history, not science. But then is simply recounting information without evaluating it and only applying the logical flaw of appeal to (perceived) authority. Reports of daylight observations would tend to cloud claims of direct lights, if not refracted/reflected. Perhaps you could look through the Appalachian State research site (Dan Canton, professor) for some actual research. Or come yourself. But bring sunglasses. Polarized. Because if the lights are reflected or refracted, they're at least partially polarized, and rotating the lens would show this. And if they don't but they're up in the air as are most sightings, they're not flashlights or campfires (the offhand dismissal by merely mentioning LEDs and such was way beneath skepticism). Why be a mere skeptic when you could prove this yourself?

Dr. Dennis McClain-Furmanski PhD, Abingdon, VA
June 15, 2014 1:57pm

At Wiseman's View a few years ago four of us had a similar experience to Brian in Charlotte. We arrived around 9:30pm and stayed for an hour and a half or so. There was one other party there at the other platform (there are two at Wiseman's). About fifteen minutes later we heard the other group oohing and ahhhhing. We looked out to see several different forms of light on the ridge opposite and a bright star just above the ridge.

There were red torch-like lights moving up the ridge slowly, in a diagonal procession. Then there were also flashes of light. Then globes of light hovering above and to the left side of the ridge in the air. Planes and helicopters could easily be ruled out just by the sheer amount of time they stayed put. Then, what I thought was the bright, very low-in-the-sky star began to move. I realized it was another kind of Brown Mountain Light.

Before leaving we shone our bright camping flashlight straight down into the gorge from the view point. We were astonished when 30 seconds later a light as bright as an arc light came racing straight up at us from directly below causing people to jump back in alarm. It was so bright that if a human being were shining it, it would have had to have been an industrial light. But we couldn't spot anyone. It seemed as if the lights had intentions! Though likely a natural phenomenon, it is odd that we have no meaningful explanation for such a well documented phenom except for those lame studies.

Mooch, New York
August 6, 2014 8:13am

"too often that we eagerly accept wild and sensational phenomena, which causes us to shut out the real science behind what's going on..." What you wrote is the pseudo-science sensationalism disguised as skepticism that you pretend to abhor. You presented NO real science whatsoever but instead based conclusions on a quick look, then "debunking" old legends/reports, finally agreeing w/1922 report.

Did you research whether there are still trains anywhere in area? Run automobiles through the Brown Mt roads while in contact with observers from all 3 overlooks? Do a count and gps mapping of all the occupied campsites/residences? mark them precisely so one could pinpoint for all 3 overlooks? Note exactly where Lake James (and its refractions) could be seen from? Investigate whenthat area became electrified? (some places weren't until 1960s; little of Brown Mt is now). Go to state archives for pre-20th C articles? You didn't even bother to observe at the 2 better overlooks.

From what you wrote, it's pretty obvious you did not even see what people call the Brown Mt. Lights

You also didn't even discuss more recent theories such as those involving groundwater movement/hematite geology and other natural things.

Incomplete observation, no experimentation, no real research= laziness, not science.

To baseand post nonsense conclusions on a skeptic site is more irresponsible than postings from 'true believers' and makes the rest of us skeptics look stupid.

Limnologist, NC
September 25, 2014 11:34am

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