The Baigong Pipes

Do modern metal pipes buried in ancient Chinese stone prove that aliens must have visited?

by Brian Dunning

Filed under Aliens & UFOs, Ancient Mysteries

Skeptoid #181
November 24, 2009
Podcast transcript | Listen | Subscribe

The Baigong Pipes
The southern shore of Lake Toson
(Photo credit: Google Earth)

Should you happen to visit Tibet anytime soon, be sure to stop by the city of Delingha. It's a town of most extraordinary beauty, nestled on the edge of the Qaidam Basin below a range of Himalayan hills. There you'll find the local residents proudly displaying their most famous distinction. For a few yuan you can probably get someone to take you to see it. Only a short journey outside of town is said to be a cave, and in this cave are a series of ancient metal pipes. These pipes predate all known history, and are embedded into the rock itself. They are said to lead through the very mountain, and connect to a nearby salt lake. The explanation? Ruins of a construction project 150,000 years ago, by alien visitors.

The Baigong Pipes are an example of what paranormal enthusiasts refer to as "out of place artifacts", modern objects discovered in ancient surroundings. The Baigong Pipes are described as a sophisticated system of metal pipes, buried in geology in such a way that precludes the possibility of having been installed in modern times. They are located on Mt. Baigong in the Qinghai province of China, about 40 kilometers southwest of Delingha. Most accounts describe a pyramid-shaped outcropping on the mountain, and the cave containing the pipes is on this pyramid. 80 meters from the mouth of this cave is a salt lake (the twin of an adjacent freshwater lake), and more pipes can be found poking up along the shore. Most of the information you can find online about the Baigong Pipes appears to be originally sourced from a 2002 article from the Xinhua News Agency, talking about preparations by a team of scientists about to embark to this remote area to study the pipes. "Nature is harsh here," said one. "There are no residents let alone modern industry in the area, only a few migrant herdsmen to the north of the mountain."

The two lakes are broad, shallow sinks at the low point of the vast Qaidam Basin. Searching for Mt. Baigong is likely to be fruitless: First, the area is largely flat and the nearest mountains are 20 or 30 kilometers away; second, baigong is a local word for hill and could mean anything in this context. The southernmost of the two lakes, Toson Hu or Lake Toson, has some low bluffs here and there along its southern and western sides (Google Maps link), and it is in one of these bluffs (about 50 or 60 meters in height) that author Bai Yu once happened to find what he described as a small cave, according to his book Into the Qaidam. [Update: The cave is on a point along Lake Toson's northeastern shore. Here is a better map link and a photo of the actual cave - BD]

Bai was traveling the area in 1996, and described a lifeless lake surrounded by cone-shaped hills. The cave appeared to have been artificially dug, and was triangular, about six meters deep. Nearby were two similar caves, but they had collapsed and could not be entered. But what struck Bai was the array of manufactured metal pipes protruding up through the floor of the cave and embedded within its walls, one 40 cm wide. Following their path outside, Bai discovered more pipes protruding from the surface of the conical hill, and even more of them 80 meters away from the cave along the shore of the lake. Excited, he removed a sample and sent it to the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry. The result was 92% common minerals and metals, and 8% of unknown composition.

Bai proceeded about 70 kilometers to the Delhi branch of China's Purple Mountain Observatory, a high vantage point from where he knew he could get a birds-eye view of the whole region. He saw great expanses of flat, open terrain, and putting two and two together, he concluded that this would make for a fine alien landing site. Unknown minerals and plentiful landing space meant that the Baigong Pipes had to be of alien origin.

Scientists from the China Seismological Bureau visited the lake in 2001 to examine the pipes. Samples brought back to the Beijing Institute of Geology were examined by thermoluminescence dating, a technique that can determine how long it's been since a crystalline mineral was either heated or exposed to sunlight. The result came back that if these were indeed iron pipes that had been smelted, they were made 140-150,000 years ago. Human history in the region only goes back some 30,000 years, and so the alien theory seemed to have been confirmed. The following year the Xinhua news story was published, and the Baigong Pipes entered pop culture as, supposedly, genuine, tangible evidence of alien visitation.

If you visit the area today, you'll find a locally-built monument to the aliens off the main highway, replete with a mockup metallic satellite dish. Internet forums buzz with the absence of followup articles by Xinhua; the natural conclusion is that it turned out the alien explanation was the true one and the Chinese government is suppressing any further reporting. touts the Baigong Pipes as one of Six Insane Discoveries that Science Can't Explain.

And although that's where most reporting of the Baigong Pipes stops, it's also where responsible inquiry should begin. When you settle on a paranormal explanation, it means you've decided there is no natural explanation. In fact, when you don't yet know the explanation, you don't yet know the explanation; so you can't reasonably decide that the time is right to stop investigating. But so many do.

Skeptical hypotheses have already been put forward, seeking a natural explanation for the Baigong Pipes that doesn't require the introduction of a wild assumption like alien visitation. The first thing we turn to are geological processes that might explain them. The Chinese have put forth several such hypotheses, including one involving the seepage of iron-rich magma into existing fissures in the rock.

A 2003 article in Xinmin Weekly described how this might work. Fractures caused by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau could have left the ground riddled with such fissures, into which the highly pressurized magma driving the uplift would have been forced. Assuming this magma was of the right composition that, when combined with the chemical effects of subsequent geological processes, we might very likely expect to see such rusty iron structures in the local rock. But evidence of this has never surfaced, and the Chinese dismissed this theory. They also noted that the Qaidam oil field would not be able to exist if there were active volcanism in the area as recently as 150,000 years ago.

It was their next theory that ultimately led to a satisfactory explanation, and this theory involved the same hypothesized fissures in the sandstone. But, instead of being filled with iron-rich magma, the fissures could have been washed full of iron-rich sediment during floods. Combined with water and the presence of hydrogen sulfide gas, the sediment could have eventually hardened into the rusty metallic pipelike structures of iron pyrite found today. This theory was not fantastic, in part because there was no logical reason why the sandstone might happen to be laced with pipe shaped fissures. But the idea of flooding did make sense, given the geological history of the Qaidam Basin.

Three years before Bai Yu took his first peek into the cave at Lake Toson, researchers Mossa and Schumacher wrote in the Journal of Sedimentary Research about fossil tree casts in Louisiana. They found cylindrical structures in the soil, thermoluminescence dated from 75-95,000 years ago. The chemical composition of the cylinders varied depending on where and when they formed and in what type of soil. The authors found that these were the fossilized casts of tree roots, formed by pedogenesis (the process by which soil is created) and diagenesis (the lithification of soil into rock through compaction and cementation). The result of this process was to create metallic pipelike structures, which by comparing the descriptions offered by researchers, appear to be a perfect match for the Baigong Pipes.

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The Chinese scientists eventually did come to the same conclusion, according to the Xinmin Weekly article. They used atomic emission spectroscopy to conduct a detailed chemical analysis of the rusty pipe fragments, and found them to contain organic plant matter. Under the microscope they found tree rings, consistently throughout the samples. Once they established that the Baigong Pipes were simply fossilized tree casts, they set about to discover how they got there.

The Qaidam basin was once a vast lake, which has disappeared as the Qinghai-Tibet plateau uplifted the basin to its current elevation of about 2800 meters. Over the millennia, various floods filled the sink with runoff, alluvium, and debris including such fossils. They can now be found wherever such ancient flows deposited them, and it seems that Bai Yu was lucky enough to discover just such a pocket.

And so we end up with a complete story of how rusty iron pipes, tens of thousands of years older than any people who might have forged them, can end up embedded in solid sandstone in such a way as to baffle the average observer. Like many amateur researchers, Bai Yu stumbled upon an extraordinary discovery, but through his lack of applicable knowledge, misinterpreted what he saw. Those who underestimate the Earth's ability to produce fascinating effects are often left to grope for goofy explanations like alien construction projects. I find that the Baigong Pipes are one of the better examples of the folly of stopping at the paranormal explanation, compared to the rich rewards offered by following the scientific method to uncover what's really going on.

Brian Dunning

© 2009 Skeptoid Media Copyright information

References & Further Reading

Beitler, B., Parry, W., Chan, M. "Fingerprints of Fluid Flow: Chemical Diagenetic History of the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, Southern Utah, U.S.A." Journal of Sedimentary Research. 1 Jul. 2005, Volume 75, Number 4: 547-561.

Mossa, J., Schumacher, B. "Fossil tree casts in South Louisiana soils." Journal of Sedimentary Research. 1 Jul. 1993, Volume 63, Number 4: 707-713.

Owen, L., Finkel, R., Ma H., Barnard, P. "Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam Basin, Northern Tibet: A framework for examining the links between glaciation, lake level changes and alluvial fan formation." Quaternary International. 13 Mar. 2006, Volume 154-155: 73-86.

Xinhuanet. "Chinese Scientists to Head for Suspected ET Relics." Xinhua News Agency. 19 Jun. 2002, Newspaper.

Xinmin Weekly. "Alien Ruins Show." Xinmin Weekly. 13 Oct. 2003, Newspaper.

Zheng, M. An introduction to saline lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

Reference this article:
Dunning, B. "The Baigong Pipes." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, 24 Nov 2009. Web. 9 Oct 2015. <>


10 most recent comments | Show all 54 comments

OBG - I was unable to find any rights-released photos to include on this page, and in fact was only able to find a very few at all. The artifacts are neither straight nor round nor consistent.

Brian Dunning, Laguna Niguel, CA
September 22, 2013 9:33pm

OBG, why not google for the few images there are?

TBH, the fact that there are few images, and the ones in existence are pretty crap, says it all to me.

If the woo really had a case for some 'paranormal' explanation, then wouldn't we expect more and better images?

From what I've seen, the whole thing is cooked up within the paranoid and gullible minds of people with wishful thinking overcoming true observation and reason.

As they say, there's nothing to see here.

Eric the not-so wise, The Black Country...UK
September 22, 2013 10:12pm

A pipe suggests something must have been in them at some point in at one time. If it is true that tree rings were found in at least come of them, then it must follow logically that the trees must have made them to use for something. Roots? You mean, as in collection vessels for the support of the trees' biology? OK, then. Trees constructed them. I like that a lot better than aliens. I trust that the general population is aware that trees control and support a great deal of modern life. We had best be kind to trees lest they suddenly begin to refuse to produce the oxygen and carbon upon which all our lives depend! The aliens will just have to go someplace else and get their own trees. :)

Swampwitch, Gainesville Fl
September 24, 2013 9:19am

Swampwitch, To get trees aliens have to land first..

Did you realise that the solution presented by people who studied the nature of fossilisation processes and plant biology had to rely on pure science to produce their pure science.

Some here would insist that is just "boffins or eggheads" taking a double grab at grants and funding just to satisfy themselves.

Aliens never had any such dichotomy. After all, there are plenty of movies about aliens that people take as fact..

Clearly the aliens didn't give us the internet in this blind drive for self satisfaction and landing theory

Mula Doola, Sin City Oz
September 24, 2013 9:29am

I'd have to reserve judgment on this one. As interesting and seductive as the alien theory is, and as mundane as the tree ring theory is, there is no real evidence for us skeptical readers to make a considered opinion.
I would feel more convinced if there were photos of the pipes, and whether they have any joints as man-made pipes do, or if they just grow,twist and twine as tree roots do.
Surely there is a way to map the path of the pipes through the Balgong hills. It would clear things up if they did.

Rosella Alm, West Covina, CA
September 24, 2013 2:30pm

If, in fact, they're are no pictures, tables or graphs of these pipes. How is it we know they run anywhere? Who looked inside of the sandstone?
When governments hide data, of course the space aliens come out.
I believe the pipes were formed by iron puking tunnel frogs. Or something else they are hiding.
If the people knew what the gov knows - there would be panic.
If the gov knew what the people know - they would be embarrassed and go away., Cleveland, Ohioi
September 25, 2013 10:45am

Great article, would have tipped if you took bitcoin!

Jake, London
January 6, 2014 1:39pm

Possible cause

barrie, newbury uk
February 25, 2014 12:14pm

Dear OBG,

The entire point of the scientific method and rational, logical thought is that you or anyone else's opinions do not matter in the slightest.

It is the people who put in the years of research and experimentation who get to work out the facts. That's the difference between scientific theory and utter bollocks.

Good day.

HerbziCal, uk
June 25, 2014 7:43am

If you guys think critically, suppose you are president of USA. You find something amazing but the thing can be dangerous in wrong hands or you are getting some profit or something more relevant reason, why would you disclose that information to public when all media, internet even this website and power to reach and kill anyone on this planet is in your hands.
I am just saying, what you guys are doing is not worth it.
Seach darknet instead. It will surely help you.

darkworldwillrise, shimla
September 11, 2015 4:48am

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