Crop Circle Jerks

Crop circles are finally commonly known to be man made. Why do some people maintain that they're not?

by Brian Dunning

Filed under Aliens & UFOs

Skeptoid #62
August 21, 2007
Podcast transcript | Listen | Subscribe

Tonight we're going to take our dowsing rods and our tinfoil helmets, stand out in a remote wheat field, and try to feel the psychic energies as a UFO comes down and forms a gigantic complicated geometric pattern by crushing the wheat. It might use a whirling dimensional vortex as its mechanism. It might be ball lightning or some strange effect of the wind. It might be the aliens trying to communicate with us. It might be the Earth herself expressing profundities. Or it might be a couple of clowns with a piece of wood.

We've all heard how in 1991, two old English guys, Doug Bower and Dave Chorley, went public with the confession that they had been making crop circles throughout England since 1976, using ropes and planks and simple surveyor's tricks. They generally did it after pub night on Fridays, and had a rollicking good time. They had been enjoying the resulting media circus immensely, and would gladly have taken their secret to the grave, but for Bower's wife who noticed the mileage on his car and wondered if he was having an affair. So, to protect Bower's marital bliss, the two made a public confession, and even did live demonstrations on TV. The media reported that the crop circle phenomenon had been solved. But, of course, to any intelligent person, Bower and Chorley's confession didn't prove a thing, any more than Ray Wallace's family's confession about him making Bigfoot prints proved that there weren't also a thousand other sources of footprints. Artist John Lundberg, who formed a group called Circlemakers, has been making many of the most complex and beautiful crop circles ever since the public confession, including many for commercial purposes. Even I made an effort in the late 1980's. My friend and I took some old skis and were going to make a crop circle in Irvine, California, but when we got there we discovered the last remaining field had just been plowed for a new subdivision.

One good thing about the crop circle phenomenon is that there are very few people left who believe that they have some cause other than pranksters. But those few people are resolute in their belief. Hoaxing is now so prominent that most of the staunchest crop circle researchers now concede that the vast majority of crop circles are manmade. However, some of them have found an "out" that lets them continue to stroke their paranormal explanations for even the manmade variety: Some researchers now believe that the same paranormal or alien forces that create "real" crop circles are also responsible for controlling the minds and actions of the hoaxers. Thus even the manmade crop circles are equally significant as evidence that an unknown intelligence is behind all crop circles.

One prominent researcher of crop circles is a man named Colin Andrews, who used to call himself CPRI or Circles Phenomenon Research International until he ran out of money a few years ago. His web site at offers CD-ROMs and Powerpoint presentations about crop circles for sale, but little in the way of testable hypotheses about non-human origins of crop circles. His research methods largely center on dowsing and psychics — which is what I'd do too, since those sources produce claims of such a nature that they cannot be tested or falsified.

In 1993, Andrews contacted Masahiro Kahata, a Japanese software engineer who constructed a simple device for measuring electroencephalogram activity and displaying it colorfully on a Macintosh screen. He calls it the Interactive Brainwave Visual Analyzer. Kahata came to England, and the two of them tromped around taking amateur EEGs of people on the street as a control, and also of dowsers in the act of examining crop circles. Andrews reported:

What we found, measuring with a computer real-time in the fields, was that the right brainwave activity of the dowser, at the precise moment those seven rings were measured and reacted to by the dowsing rods, spiked in all the brainwave frequencies — alpha, theta, beta, and delta — at the precise moment the dowsing rods moved.

Andrews regards this as hard scientific evidence that the dowsers are reacting to a physical manifestation of the crop circle, though he's vague on what that might be. As it turns out, Kahata had also done similar experiments on his own in the 1970's, when he applied an earlier version of his device to magicians and self-described psychics while they were performing spoon bending tricks. He got the same results: higher EEG activity during the spoon bending performances. Was this evidence of an unknown psychic force? Science writer and magic teacher Dorion Sagan, son of Carl Sagan, offered a different conclusion:

If there is a tightly correlated increase in mental activity while a psychic is bending spoons, it is probably because he is nervous he is going to get caught.

Now I'll grant that most dowsers, especially those who invest the time and money to travel to crop circle sites, are not consciously out to fool anyone and thus aren't nervous that any deception will be detected. But since dowsing of any kind has never passed any rigorously controlled test (sorry, but it hasn't), and it's well established that many psychics and other mediums are genuinely but unconsciously using well established cognitive phenomena to guide their divinations (sorry, but they are), honest dowsers are probably genuinely excited every time their dowsing rods move. And genuine excitement is just as good at making an EEG jump as is the state of being nervous.

Most neurologists agree that EEGs are useful to a certain point. You can derive basic information from them, but they are too vague to indicate anything complex like sending telepathic messages. Intense concentration on a pattern, for example, can produce a recognizable signal in some cases. An epileptic seizure throws up a giant spike. But to state that any given spike indicates the presence of a paranormal force and not the excitement or nervousness of the dowser, you need to leave the realm of what neurologists have learned and enter the land of pure speculation. Andrews himself states that the same spikes in EEG activity were observed on one occasion when a military helicopter flew close by. Such a flyby would make me pretty nervous.

So much for dowsing the crop circles. What about their formation? The people who make them use simple tools and surveying techniques to transfer complex plans into a full-scale wheat field, but what about those said to be formed by paranormal means? How does that happen? Colin Andrews explains further:

The eyewitnesses I've interviewed in many countries over the years have all agreed with me on one point: when they claim to have seen circles form, they appear in 10 to 15 seconds.

In any picture you see of Colin Andrews visiting a crop circle, he's loaded with camera equipment and so is everyone else in the picture. In fact, it's hard to find any picture of crop circle investigators where everyone in the shot is not holding a camera or binoculars or something, finger on the trigger. So my question to Colin Andrews would be, "Did you not ask these crop circle investigators who witnessed the formations why, in every single case, they failed to produce a single photograph or frame of videotape showing this wonderful creation?" If I were Colin Andrews, these investigators are not those whose testimonials I would flaunt to the world. Instead I would tell them they screwed up, and probably even accuse them of trying to hoax me. How can they spend all day and night camped out on the hilltop, finger on the video camera trigger, witness a crop circle forming, and produce only a lengthy list of verbal reports, and no video? Inexcusable for a conscientious researcher. The first thing I would fault Colin Andrews for would be requiring only the lowest of standards for the information he accepts as evidence.

So what about all these numerous eyewitness accounts of crop circles being formed, in seconds, by hovering balls of light? Well, again, I'd point to the evidence issue. These eyewitnesses, or at least those reporting the accounts, always turn out to be crop circle believers. If they'd seen a real event, they probably would have used that camera hanging around their neck. But in every case, they've failed to do so.

Well, almost every case. There is one famous video of white balls of light actually creating an entire crop circle, in seconds. It's called the Oliver Castle video, and you can find it on YouTube. It was made by John Wabe in 1996 or 1997, a partner in a small video production company called First Cut Studio. He took some simple video of the completed crop circle, and ran it through their Quantel Paintbox. In a video subsequently broadcast on the Discovery Channel and on National Geographic, he showed how he rubber-stamped other pieces of the wheatfield background to "erase" the crop circle, and then un-erased it bit by bit underneath some flying white dots that he added. He then added some shake and some artificial generation loss to the video, and presto, a great hoax was done. For years it was considered definitive proof by many crop circle believers. But when he finally went public with how he made it, guess what? Few believed him, and many still believe to this day that the video is genuine, and that it's his confession that is the real hoax. Web pages accuse him of earning huge sums of money — government payoffs for discrediting a genuine video. Even if you read the comments on YouTube — which are, granted, mostly the half-literate and profanity-laced ravings of young people — it's painfully clear that many people cannot be convinced by any evidence that a paranormal phenomenon is not real.

Tip Skeptoid $2/mo $5/mo $10/mo One time

And although some prominent crop circle researchers (Colin Andrews among them) do accept that the video is a fake, many do not. Believer web sites assert that top video analysts have proven that the Oliver Castle video cannot have been faked. My favorite among these top analysts is Jim Dilletoso, whom you may remember from Skeptoid episode 41. Dilletoso is one of the most vocal UFO advocates, and claims to have spent six weeks at an underground base for gray aliens outside Dulce, New Mexico. Judge his credibility for yourself.

It is an interesting world we live in, where you can tell a group of people that you made a crop circle with a rope, even show them how you did it, and they still insist that an unknown paranormal intelligence did it. You can tell them that two plus two equals four and they'll insist that it's five, even after you line up four apples for them. You can make a simple hoax video with them sitting at your elbow watching, and they'll conclude the video's real and you're a paid government stooge. And then they'll put their tinfoil helmet back on.

Brian Dunning

© 2007 Skeptoid Media Copyright information

References & Further Reading

Andrews, C., Delgado, P. Circular Evidence: A Detailed Investigation of the Flattened Swirled Crops Phenomenon. London: Bloomsbury, UK, 1989. 1-190.

Branwyn, Gareth. "The Desire to Be Wired." Wired. 1 Sep. 1993, Volume 1, Number 4: 62-65, 113.

Irving, R., Lundberg, J. The Field Guide: The Art, History and Philosophy of Crop Circle Making. London: Strange Attractor Press, 2006.

Lundberg, J. "Case History." Circlemakers. John Lundberg, 12 Oct. 1999. Web. 7 Oct. 2013. <>

Nickell, Joe. "Circular Reasoning: The Mystery of Crop Circles and Their Orbs of Light." Commitee for Skeptical Inquiry. Commitee for Skeptical Inquiry, 20 Sep. 2002. Web. 6 Oct. 2009. <>

Ridley, Matt. "Crop Circle Confession." Scientific American. 1 Aug. 2002, Volume 287, Number 2: 25.

Reference this article:
Dunning, B. "Crop Circle Jerks." Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, 21 Aug 2007. Web. 29 Aug 2015. <>


10 most recent comments | Show all 51 comments

Oyvind - the modern marvels you cite are in a slightly different class of activity to crop circles. Nobody expects integrated circuits or spaceflight to seriously have been developed without any witnesses by two or three giggling pranksters under cover of darkness in the space of a few hours.

Reimer, Non-place Urban Field
May 14, 2013 10:43pm

Except that many people make crop circles. There is no need to think aliens do it nor (or even worse) something unnatural like...something supernatural..There are many many movies of this on TV and elsewhere every day.

But, the two ball circles could never have been made up, cold they?

øyvind is pretty spot on to point out the obvious.

Moral Dolphin, Greenacres by the sea Oz
May 15, 2013 12:21am

Crop circles are greatest joke of Mother Nature, also called Mother Earth. Created only by her, with help of her - nature - laws.

Very much crop circles resemble a PC simulation of electromagnetic fields. Even a single one, separate circle. That is why because they are really created by ElectroMagnetic Field lines of force from lightning discharges.

Also great resonances and interferences may happen there.

Crop Circles are only Nature made. Almost everyone, with only few exceptions. Yes, a few such exceptions exist every year, but thery are made by very mistaken people. Such people (circlemakers) say: when I am able create a crop circle, so every are created by people! Really very foolish theory.

Every crop circle, that called genuine, has its Father - The lightning discharge, nad Mother (Nature). Verifiable backwards. Ask meteorologists.

None genuine crop circle will appear there, where was not present preceeding thunderstorm and lightning.

Doug and Dave were in fact two great fools, rum-dum drunken unemployed. All their "activity" was created in pub, and their "confession", making "circles" (very bad) for journalists was in progres after that, not before.

Any their follower today, circlemaker (fool), would meet in cereal field the only real author - Lightning Discharge.

Prediction: Objects, very similar to crop circles on Earth, will be in future found on Martian surface. Martian lightnings were recorded.

Tomcat, The World
May 30, 2013 2:35am

Great Post Tomcat. Your familiarity with crop circle makers is astounding!

Moral Dolphin Back in Mud Suit, Greenacres by the sea Oz
June 5, 2013 5:15pm

Lmao, right now I am listening through the episode collection for a second time. I didnt catch the comment about Brian just barely missing the last crop field in irvine for it being replaced by new apartment developments the first time listening. Those of us that grew up in Irvine shouldve known that crop circles and crop circle investigations just weren't part of the Master Plan, so it had to go. For that matter, crops in general weren't part of the Plan either. I was born in 1985, and I DO remember a couple orange tree groves right along the outskirts of the old El Toro Marine Base.... Till those were nixed too. Orange trees wouldn't have been a great medium for circle-making anyway.

Paul, Irvine, CA
October 13, 2013 12:13am

I like to think of Crop Circles as alien graffiti, something the ETs do for fun, or because they're bored, like those guys who spray-paint subway cars. Maybe it's vandalism but it does look cool.

Panda Rosa, Savannah, GA
March 8, 2014 8:30am

Some years ago little "crop" circles showed up on some sandbeach (at Rio or Nitéroi).

In a few days, an elderly pensioner presented himself at the local TV sation and explained that the circles were the result of his sitting calistenics workouts, who he did every day as a warming up to his mornig run.

This is what I remember of the story, unfortunately I was unable to find further information, but:

Marcos Dantas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
March 8, 2014 9:36am

I have seen "real" crop circles, those caused by wind vortices, and they are very dull affairs. I live in an agricultural area where cereals are the predominant crop and circular patterns are common. Those that the Saucerians claim to be evidence of alien intellect are clearly man-made. Doug and Dave grabbed headlines and limelight by claiming that they fashioned them all. That is, of course, nonsense but their techniques are generally used by all the other circle builders. That the more recent "cereaglyphs" are becoming ever more complex and sophisticated suggests to me, at least, that a new breed of makers is at work and I point my finger at clever art students with daring, a need to show off, access to computers and time on their hands. Also, they have some spectacular skillset and it is manifested in what now has to be accepted as an artform.
And, please, can we stop using the expression "hoax"? "Hoax" implies that those made by smart humans are not "real" and must be differentiated from the "genuine" ones which ETs make to deliver cryptic warnings to us about nuclear holocaust, reptoids, eating too much etc.

Carter Block, Felixstowe, UK
February 13, 2015 11:52am

@ Fred

I have carried out a huge amount of research into crop circles. I am a retired crop scientist, ex Study Director for the largest independent crop research company in the world. There isn't anything in crop circles that I can't explain save for one thing, expulsion cavities in the nodes of winter wheat in downed areas of the crop. However, no-one has been able to send me any samples, so whilst very interesting, it isn't enpugh evidence to base any conclusions on.

The incident you are referring to has been explained - my research shows that the guy who allegedly made the video was trying to sell it and his story for a large amount of cash in the local pub to a journalist/UFO group member but the journalist did some digging and found that a second guy in Bristol, who owned a video editing studio, had admitted to hoaxing the tape. There were solid links between both guys via receipts for the work done. The original guy then disappeared leaving the hoaxed tape in the hands of the journalist. He did surface again later on and asked why the money hadn't been paid into his account, then admitted to the journalist that he had financial issues when he was outed as a hoaxer - then he disappeared never to be seen again.

You can find the names of everyone on the internet with a bit of searching and you'll see that this is likely to be a hoax, albeit a very good one. I had me going for a while.

Hey - I want to believe, but the evidence so far is they are all man made - sorry

Stuart, Nottingham
March 13, 2015 5:16pm

@ Tomcat

Sorry again - researched that one and been to the lecture by Jennifer Stein. She asked me to consult to her, though when it all came down to it unfortunately the science simply doesn't add up.

The only real mother nature effects are crop lodging, which is usually caused by heavy rain. Unfortunately mother nature doesn't work in perfect circles and these lodging effects are mostly irregular, though I have see small circles when the crop has fallen on itself but these are no more than a metre or so at their largest in diameter.

If these electromagnetic discharges cause the circles we see, how do they create the amazing patterns and why are they always located int he same areas? Additionally, in my long field trials career spanning back to the 80's, why did they never affect any of the 1000's of field trials I conducted each year by ourselves and our colleagues? Why has one never been seen to be created by someone and why do they always seem to be created at night?

I have to admit, there is some odd stuff happening, which is why I'm sitting on the fence still, though I am 100% certain that crop circles with complex patterns are made by us, most likely for a bit of fun.

Again, unfortunately I have scientifically debunked the crop circles that have been labelled so called "authentic" by BLT and other organisations due to poor science. Still some of their findings are very interesting. This is why no-one wants to produce any evidence to me.

I want to believe !

Stuart, Nottingham
March 13, 2015 5:36pm

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